Pathway Analysis: Likelihood of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) Introduction into the Hawaiian Islands by Air Passenger Travel

Takeuchi, Yu
Benavides, Pablo
Johnson, Melissa A
Follett, Peter A
Hossain, Mohammad Khalid
Navarro, Lucio
Giraldo, Marisol
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Hawaiian Entomological Society
The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) is considered the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing significant reductions in both the yield and quality of coffee products. CBB was first detected in the Kona coffee-growing district of Hawaii island in 2010. Since then, CBB has spread to all other major coffeegrowing regions across the state. In this study, we conducted a quantitative risk assessment to determine the likelihood and frequency of air passengers bringing CBB-infested materials into Hawaii and to estimate human-mediated dispersal pathways between islands. There were over 3.3 million visitors traveling from CBB-occurring countries to Hawaii from 2010 to 2019; we estimated that only 238, 237 of these passengers underwent agricultural inspection at the port of entry. Although the detection rate of CBB on air passengers was very low, the model suggested that there could be at least one passenger bringing CBB-infested materials to Hawaii every year. In addition, we found that Oahu is the most likely source of new pest entries to neighboring islands given the large number of passengers that depart from the Honolulu International Airport. We suggest implementing risk-based inspections of foreign arrivals and inter-island passengers as well as establishing annual inspection routines to intercept infested materials coming into the state. These types of programs will provide the data needed to fine tune statistical models that can be used to predict future introductions. Ultimately these models will serve as critically important tools for crop and commodity protection in Hawaii by improving biosecurity standards and informing the development of emergency response plans for new invasive pests and diseases.
air passengers, biosecurity, island invasions, quantitative pathway model
Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society (2022) 54:1-20.
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