Volume 54 - 2022: Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Weathering of Torula Yeast Borax Food Bait and Capture of Oriental, Mediterranean, and Melon Fruit Flies in Hawaii (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2022-04-04) Shelly, Todd ; Fezza, Thomas ; Kurashima, Rick
    Detection of pestiferous tephritid fruit flies relies largely on traps baited with male-specific attractants, termed male lures. Although male lures are quite powerful, two factors limit their effectiveness: they do not target females, and males of many tephritid species are not attracted to these compounds. Consequently, food-baited traps are an important component of fruit fly monitoring programs, because, despite their relatively low attractancy, food baits are general attractants that are neither sex- nor species-specific. Enzymatic torula yeast in an aqueous solution is a standard food attractant used in tephritid trapping programs worldwide. Torula yeast bait is not particularly long-lasting, and replacement is recommended every 7–14 d. Few data exist regarding the attractiveness of this food bait over time, and the present study was undertaken to compare captures of wild Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) in Multilure traps baited with torula yeast slurry weathered for 3, 6, 9, or 12 d. No significant variation in trap catch was detected among these weathering intervals for any of the three species. In a second experiment, trap captures were compared between food bait weathered 3 vs. 21 d, and in this case significantly more C. capitata and Z. cucurbitae were captured in the 3-d-old bait, whereas catch of B. dorsalis was similar for traps containing food bait weathered for 3 or 21 d. Results are compared with those of previous studies.
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    Statewide Survey of Insects Found on Coffee in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2022-03-29) LeMay, Gabriel A ; Kawabata, Andrea M ; Curtiss, RT
    Hawaii is home to a high number of endemic species, but the state is also considered a hotbed of invasive species. Coffee, like many crops grown in Hawaii, is particularly valuable and susceptible to a number of injurious pest insects not yet established in the islands. A comprehensive statewide survey of insects found on coffee plants has never been undertaken. Cultivated and feral coffee, at 46 sites on the six main Hawaiian Islands, was systematically surveyed for pest and innocuous insects. Surveys identified 152 unique insect species or morphotypes in 12 orders associated with coffee throughout the state. Some are major pests of coffee, such as the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, while others have little impact on coffee production. This survey identified no new state records but is the first to document the association of many of these insects with coffee plants.
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    A Low-Cost Trap to Monitor Parasitism of Macadamia Felted Coccid (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) and Other Scale Insects
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2022-03-29) Pulakkatu-thodi, Ishakh ; Acebes-Doria, Angelita ; Follett, Peter A
    We designed and tested a custom-made parasitoid emergence trap that can be installed on macadamia trees in the field to study parasitism of macadamia felted coccid, Acanthococcus ironsidei (Williams) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae). The cost of materials for the trap is approximately $3.00 each, and a trap can be constructed in ~15 min. Optimal methods for determining percent parasitism using these traps are still under development, but two proposed methods gave estimates of 0.24 and 4.85% for mortality due to parasitism by Encarsia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The trap could be an effective and low-cost tool for future parasitism studies or in determining population structure of macadamia felted coccid as it captures parasitoids and other mobile, positively phototactic insects that are present under the covered area of the trap.
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    The Interception of Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863 Found in Imported Produce Purchased in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2022-03-12) Koch, Jonathan Berenguer Uhuad ; King, Cynthia BA ; Lindsay, Thuy-Tien Thai ; Matsunaga, Janis N ; Mossman, Bret Nainoa
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    Pathway Analysis: Likelihood of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) Introduction into the Hawaiian Islands by Air Passenger Travel
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2022-01-22) Takeuchi, Yu ; Benavides, Pablo ; Johnson, Melissa A ; Follett, Peter A ; Hossain, Mohammad Khalid ; Navarro, Lucio ; Giraldo, Marisol
    The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) is considered the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing significant reductions in both the yield and quality of coffee products. CBB was first detected in the Kona coffee-growing district of Hawaii island in 2010. Since then, CBB has spread to all other major coffeegrowing regions across the state. In this study, we conducted a quantitative risk assessment to determine the likelihood and frequency of air passengers bringing CBB-infested materials into Hawaii and to estimate human-mediated dispersal pathways between islands. There were over 3.3 million visitors traveling from CBB-occurring countries to Hawaii from 2010 to 2019; we estimated that only 238, 237 of these passengers underwent agricultural inspection at the port of entry. Although the detection rate of CBB on air passengers was very low, the model suggested that there could be at least one passenger bringing CBB-infested materials to Hawaii every year. In addition, we found that Oahu is the most likely source of new pest entries to neighboring islands given the large number of passengers that depart from the Honolulu International Airport. We suggest implementing risk-based inspections of foreign arrivals and inter-island passengers as well as establishing annual inspection routines to intercept infested materials coming into the state. These types of programs will provide the data needed to fine tune statistical models that can be used to predict future introductions. Ultimately these models will serve as critically important tools for crop and commodity protection in Hawaii by improving biosecurity standards and informing the development of emergency response plans for new invasive pests and diseases.