Horizons, Volume 1

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    Editor's Foreword
    ( 2016-10-21) Beaule, Christine
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    To Come Out is to Uphold and Liberate: The Hegemony and Queerness of Christian Closets
    ( 2016-10-21) Omuro, Jon H.
    In dominant LGBTQ+ U.S. discourse, the term “closet” refers to a space from which a covert sexual identification and/or orientation emerges. Yet, this definition becomes increasingly complicated when set in the context of evangelical Christianity. Indeed, within the U.S., dominant evangelical discourse is primarily viewed as antagonistic to LGBTQ+ peoples, due to its homophobic stances and denials of LGBTQ+ identities and rights. This opposition raises a key question: what do closet constructions situated at the intersection of gay/Christian identity look like? In this article, I explore and queer several Christian closets as structured by both gay and straight Christian writers. For these writers, faith and gayness play different roles of hiding, reinforcing, and liberating gay and Christian identities within and out of Christian closets. By scrutinizing these Christian closets within a queer framework provided by Eve Sedgwick and Judith Butler, I argue that these closets can be—often simultaneously—representative of the hegemonic demands of evangelical Christianity while espousing queer reimaginings of survival within this demanding ideology itself. Ultimately, I propose that Christian closets provide a unique venue through which overlaps, dissonances, and similarities between LGBTQ+/Christian ideologies and discourses can be affirmed, blurred, and queered. Such work is vital in the context of the present U.S., where these two ostensibly antithetical ideologies are continually thrown in the spotlight—both in expected quarrels or unusual displays of collaboration.
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    Fjords and Firearms: Military Spending, Economic Growth, and Technological Innovation in Post war Norway
    ( 2016-10-21) Litzelman, Eli
    Both economists and policy makers disagree on the effects of significant military spending on the economy during peacetime. By looking at Norway, a small but advanced nation with a complex economy and a mixed history of military spending, a case study can be made on the positive and negative influences of military spending. In order to understand this connection, two key national indicators should be analyzed in Norway during the Cold War: military spending and economic growth, as represented by the change in both real gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capita over time, while paying particular attention to research and development (R&D). The Norwegian military establishment took a significant turn after the Second World War as military spending increased dramatically and Norway began receiving significant investments by Western nations, specifically the United States. As Norway reached the end of the twentieth century, however, relative military spending began to decrease and the military’s role in technology and innovation shifted to the civilian sector. Arguably, one of the most significant contributions of the Norwegian military sector in the twentieth century has been the slow conversion of military R&D to civilian R&D within the public sector; this conversion has provided firms with a constant flow of human resources and enabled the success of Norway’s technology-driven industries.
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    Conceptual Design of Kewalo Basin and Kupu Hawai‘i’s Youth Facility
    ( 2016-10-21) Jugueta, Kristoffer
    Situated along the coastline of the urban development of Kaka’ako, Kewalo Basin is destined to become an attractive urban space for community interaction. While more housing is currently under development, the need for community and public space is needed. Operating the site is a nonprofit organization that gives opportunities to under resourced youth, preparing them for the future. In this final project, the student was challenged to design an urban landscape that faces the problems of climate change and future sea level rise. The design process involved site visits with clients and architects, conducting site analysis and extensive research. With the data collected, schematic phases of design was operated through a series of sketches and study models. Within a two-month timeline, the student was able to design an architectural vision with the assistance of local architect firms, Group 70 and PBR Hawai`i. The project resulted in an urban space fit for multi-generational uses where people can interact together. The site was strategically designed to take advantage of Hawai`i’s natural resources while also emphasizing on concepts shared from Hawaiian culture. A two-story facility was also designed to provide room for a variety of public spaces and private classrooms, giving Hawai`i’s youth a future to live by.
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    Chronic
    ( 2016-10-21) Galarita, Brandon
    My short story provides glimpses into a family that is tarnished by the influence of ice, or crystal methamphetamine. I employ the modular style—a form that breaks expectations of time and place as seen in a linear narrative—to reduce the work to its essential moments, allowing both what is said and unsaid to be amplified. I created this work with the intention of highlighting the issue of meth use across the state of Hawaiʻi, which brings danger to families, tears them apart, and impacts the fragile minds of children. I embrace the use of Pidgin—Hawaiian Creole English—as a staple of my work to plant a reader, including those who may be unfamiliar with this language, in the culture I have been raised in. I have seen the effects of this drug firsthand and in creating this piece I wanted to reveal one aspect of an issue that is not simply black-and-white.