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Authors:Moses, Mitchell
Contributors:Kanisthakhon, Bundit (advisor)
Architecture (department)
Keywords:Water resources management
Date Issued:2021
Publisher:University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Abstract:Fresh water or wai was an integral aspect of ancient Hawaiian culture. For thousands of years, water was collected, stored, and directed throughout the land from the mountains to the ocean through a sequence of rivers, lakes, or streams. Today, the Board of Water Supply (BWS) serves one million people on Oʻahu by supplying 145 million gallons per day through a series of pumps, treatment/storage facilities, and miles of pipeline. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, published in 2015 by John Wiley, stated that the next great world crisis will be related to water supply. This statement has been supported by evidence and observations recorded by the Hawaiʻi Community Foundation (HCF) in A Blueprint for Action: Water Security for an Uncertain Future, which was published in 2018. HCF notes that one-third of the world’s population does not have adequate fresh water, and that this fraction is expected to rise to two-thirds by 2025. Furthermore, the State of Hawai‘i acknowledges that “climate change is the paramount challenge of this century, posing both an urgent and long-term threat to the State’s economy, sustainability, security, and way of life.”
The BWS master plan shows projections of extreme development and elevated population levels within the ʻEwa district. In 2014, the BWS on Oʻahu distributed 35.36% of the water supply to single-family residential homes. This percentage ranks higher than state government, city government, hotels, and commercial entities. The BWS currently recycles wastewater in a water reuse program in the Honouliuli Wastewater Treatment Plant but only supplies areas within a close proximity and usually for irrigation and industrial needs. In addition, BWS proposes an extension of the current Honouliuli plant to counter increases in population and wastewater within the district. HCF states that in the past 30 years, Oʻahu has seen an increase in evaporation rates, greater rainfall, and declining stream flows. These observations are physical warnings of the depletion of Hawaiʻi’s aquifers and highlight the need to address water usage in single-family homes, conservation, and the recharge and reuse of water.
Through research and the design of potential practices, this project aims to reinvent the state’s current water system through the reclamation of both stormwater and wastewater. The project proposed by this thesis is designed for future dry and hot climate developments in Hawaiʻi such as ʻEwa (located on the west side of the island of Oʻahu). This design proposes the capture, storage, recycling, and reuse of rainwater and the treatment of wastewater to provide water security to Hawaiʻi’s aquifers. It considers existing conditions and cultural and historical relationships between the site and communities. The design reduces stormwater runoff, proposes a solution for treatment of wastewater, and provides for a place of gathering, learning, and teaching for surrounding communities. A connection to the sustainable culture that Hawaiʻi once had, fostered through an awareness of water and historical and cultural connections to water, can benefit future generations.
Pages/Duration:157 pages
Rights:All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
Appears in Collections: D.ARCH. - Architecture

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