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SHADING OF COFFEE PLANTATIONS FOR INDUCED EPIZOOTICS OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. ON THE COFFEE BERRY BORER, HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI FERRARI
|Title:||SHADING OF COFFEE PLANTATIONS FOR INDUCED EPIZOOTICS OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. ON THE COFFEE BERRY BORER, HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI FERRARI|
|Authors:||Caraballo Ferrer, Jeffrey|
|Contributors:||Wright, Mark (advisor)|
Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences (department)
show 3 morecoffee berry borer
green coffee quality
|Publisher:||University of Hawai'i at Manoa|
|Abstract:||The use of shade has generated a debate on whether shade trees are beneficial to coffee culture. This topic has lacked a clear consensus in the scientific literature. In this research we addressed the effect of shade from a pest management perspective focusing on the impacts of shade on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and the main insect pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), Coleoptera; Curculionidae, CBB) in the field and on green coffee quality following Specialty Coffee Association standard (SCA). The effect of irrigation, artificial and natural shade on the efficacy of B. bassiana, CBB infestation and damage to green coffee were evaluated. The irrigation treatments consisted of a high, low aerial irrigation and no irrigations regimes. The artificial and natural shade treatments consisted of 30% shade cloth, 50% shade cloth, full sun, shade under the canopy of a shade tree and shade beside the canopy of a shade tree. In addition, distance from the shade was used as a surrogate measure of shade in a separate experiment. The 5 distances or coffee tree positions were: 1, coffee trees right next to the shade tree trunk; 2, coffee trees located at the edge of the canopy of the shade tree; 3, coffee trees located halfway between the edge of the canopy and the farthest projected shade; 4, coffee trees located at the farthest projected shade and 5 located farther away where no shade was received. These distances were oriented according to the eastern and western cardinal directions from the shade tree. CBB mortality by B. bassiana, CBB field infestation, CBB parchment infestation, lost green bean yield, percentage of severely and slightly bored beans (in green coffee). |
In 2016, artificial and natural shade treatment significantly increased CBB mortality by B. bassiana, but not in 2015. Aerial irrigation did not affect CBB mortality by B. bassiana nor CBB field infestation. Artificial and natural shade did not affect the CBB field infestation in 2015, but in 2016 dense shade increased the CBB field infestation. The CBB parchment infestation was affected by artificial and natural shade where in 2015 the infestation decreased with increasing shade and in 2016 CBB parchment infestation increased with increasing shade. The shade cloth treatments and shade beside the canopy had less green coffee yield loss and percentage of severely bored beans than full sun and shade under the canopy.
Distance from the shade did not affect CBB mortality by B. bassiana. Distance from the shade tree significantly affected CBB parchment infestation, green coffee yield loss and percent of severely bored beans where the coffee trees beside the canopy of the shade tree that received cardinal shade had the lowest infestation, yield loss and percentage of severely bored beans. Cardinal direction also had a significant impact on CBB parchment infestation, yield loss and percent of severely bored green beans but the actual difference between the eat and west was small.
In summary, no adverse effect of shade nor irrigation on CBB mortality by B. bassiana were recorded. Although, shade is capable of increasing CBB mortality by B. bassiana, this effect was not consistent. In addition, shade beside shade trees and lighter shade percentages reduce CBB damage to coffee green coffee quality.
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|Appears in Collections:||
Ph.D. - Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences|
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