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The Associates of Four Species of Marine Sponges of Oregon and Washington

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Title:The Associates of Four Species of Marine Sponges of Oregon and Washington
Authors:Long, Edward R.
Date Issued:Jun 1968
Publisher:University of Hawai'i Press
Citation:Long ER. 1968. The associates of four species of marine sponges of Oregon and Washington. Pac Sci 22(3): 347-351.
Abstract:Four species of sponge from the coasts of Oregon and Washington
were studied and dissected for inhabitants and associates. The four species differed
in texture, composition, and habitat, and likewise, the populations of associates of
each differed, even when samples of two of these species were found adjacent to one
another. Generally, the relationships of the associates to the host sponges were of
four sorts: (1) inquilinism or lodging, either accidental or intentional; (2) predation
or grazing; (3) competition for space resulting in "co-habitation" of an area
(i.e., a plant or animal growing up through a sponge); and (4) mutualism. Fish eggs
in the hollow chambers of Homaxinella sp. represented fish-in-sponge inquilinism,
which is the first such instance reported in the Pacific Ocean and in this sponge.
The sponge Halichondria panicea, with an intracellular algal symbiont, was found
to emit an attractant into the water, which Archidoris montereyensis followed, in
behavior experiments, in preference to other sponges simultaneously offered. A
total of 6,098 organisms, representing 68 species, were found associated with the
samples of Halichondria panicea with densities of up to 19 organisms per cm3 of
sponge tissue. There were 9,581 plants and animals found with Microciona prolifera,
and 150 with Suberites lata.
Appears in Collections: Pacific Science Volume 22, Number 3, 1968

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