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Title: From resistance to affirmation, we are who we were: Reclaiming national identity in the Hawaiian sovereignty movement, 1990 - 2003 
Author: Cruz, Lynette Hi'ilani
Date: 2003-05
Publisher: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: Cruz, Lynette Hi'ilani (2003) From resistance to affirmation, we are who we were: Reclaiming national identity in the Hawaiian sovereignty movement, 1990--2003. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai'i, United States -- Hawaii.
Abstract: In most texts about Hawaiian history, the Hawaiian Kingdom was overthrown in 1893. Hawai'i, as a result, was then governed first by a Provisional Government, then by the Republic of Hawai'i. Such texts further note that in 1898, Hawai'i was annexed to the United States and, subsequently, became the State of Hawai'i through a vote of the people in 1959.

This dissertation examines Hawaiian history from a different perspective, one based on the issue of 'legality', and on documentation that surfaced in the 1990s that challenges the United States' claim to annexation of Hawai'i. The illegality of the takeover by haole businessmen, the resistance of Queen Lili'uokalani and her loyal subjects to the takeover, statements by then-President Grover Cleveland referencing the overthrow as an "Act of War," in many ways set the tone for the present-day sovereignty movement.

Highlighted are some of the activities within the Hawaiian sovereignty movement during the 1990s and the first few years of this century that are turning points in the struggle for Hawaiian sovereignty. Identified spokespersons for the movement are extensively cited, as well as individuals with strong but thoughtful opinions. Many of the citations used were gathered and saved from emails or from relevant websites.

Prophecy, and the acknowledgement of spirituality as a grounding force in a unified movement, is a significant element, and serves to remind activists, and especially Hawaiian activists, that the work to re-establish the nation can only succeed if it is based in Hawaiian cultural concepts that are pono (correct or in proper relationship). Maintaining 'right relationships' between the people, the heavens and the earth is necessary to successfully carry forward the reclaimed Hawaiian nation and the identity of the people as Hawaiian nationals, as the Queen directed a century ago. Most importantly, it allows those involved in the struggle to see themselves, not as victims, but as masters of their own fate.
Rights: All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
Keywords: Affirmation, National identity, Hawaiian, Sovereignty movement, Cultural anthropology

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