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Microwave-assisted extraction of lycopene in tomato peels: effect of extraction conditions on all-trans and cis- isomer yields

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Title:Microwave-assisted extraction of lycopene in tomato peels: effect of extraction conditions on all-trans and cis- isomer yields
Authors:Ho, Kacie K.H.Y.
Ferruzzi, M.G.
Liceaga, A.M.
San Martín-González, M.F.
microwave-assisted extraction
response surface methodology
Date Issued:2015
Abstract:Lycopene is the primary carotenoid in tomato peels, a processing byproduct, and can be used as a natural color or bioactive ingredient. Unfortunately, extractions are inefficient as lycopene is extremely nonpolar and susceptible to degradation. As a rapid technique, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) potentially offers efficient lycopene recovery. Thus, the objectives of this research were to: 1) optimize MAE of lycopene from tomato peels and 2) evaluate the effect of treatment on all-trans and isomer yields. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize lycopene extraction with solvent ratio solid-liquid ratios, microwave power, and delivered energy equivalents as factors. High performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used for isomer separation and quantification. Optimum MAE conditions were determined as: 0:10 solvent ratio at 400 W with a yield of 13.592 mg/100 g of extracted all-trans-lycopene. RSM suggested that ethyl acetate was a better MAE solvent for lycopene recovery as compared to hexane, which overall extracted less lycopene. HPLC-DAD indicated that MAE significantly improved all-trans and total lycopene yields, while conventional extraction demonstrated higher proportions of cis-isomer yields. Additionally, electron micrographs showed that significant structural disruption occurred in MAE-treated samples, possibly allowing for the improved lycopene extraction.
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