2020 Maunalua Bay Case Study

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    Monitoring the Phenology of Chromolaena odorata to Inform Management of an Incipient and Highly Invasive Species in Hawaiʻi
    ( 2022-05-09) Shizuru, Samantha H ; Litton, Creighton ; Miura, Tomoaki ; Sugiyama, Anna
    The invasion of nonnative species has negative impacts on ecological processes and ecosystem services, and these impacts are being exacerbated by global trade and climate change. In Hawaiʻi, invasive species, along with associated biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, are the greatest threat to the archipelago’s endemic biota. In 2011, Chromolaena odorata (Devil’s Weed), a globally dispersed invasive species, was first detected in the Kahuku Training Area (KTA) on the Island of O’ahu. Known as one of the world’s worst weeds, C. odorata is an aggressive colonizer of disturbed environments that, once established, creates dense monotypic stands that prevent the growth and regeneration of other species. Since its discovery in 2011, C. odorata has spread to occupy ~1,042 ha in KTA. The objective of this study was to develop a C. odorata phenology monitoring program to investigate the correlation between observed phenophases, seed germination, and climate variables to inform integrated weed management (IWM). To address this objective, I monitored the phenology (i.e., phenophases or life cycle events) and plant condition of C. odorata every two weeks in KTA for 12 months in five study sites and recorded monthly precipitation and temperature from the closest weather station. In addition, I collected soil samples in each study plot monthly and monitored seedling emergence in the greenhouse over 12 months. Overall, I found that flowering occurred between November – February and fruit set occurred between February – April, with smaller flowering and fruiting events in May – June and June – July, respectively. Monthly precipitation and temperature had strong explanatory power for both overall plant condition and productivity-related phenophases (i.e., flower production and seed drop). In addition, a positive correlation existed between seedling germination and the presence of flowers. Based on this information, chemical and mechanical control should be conducted between August and October to reduce large flowering events beginning in November. Overall, the results of this study will allow for the adjustment and optimization of IWM practices for this species based on phenophases that are more susceptible to weed control methods, as well as informing the use of phenology in controlling and managing invasive species more broadly.
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    Biocultural Restoration Guide for Protect and Preserve Hawaiʻi
    ( 2020-05-13) Ueunten, Ryan ; Stubbs, Alexis ; Shizuru, Samantha ; Crow, Susan ; Oleson, Kirsten
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    Maunalua Urban Forestry Stakeholder and Land Assessment for Tree Planting Initiatives
    ( 2020-05-13) Idle, Jessica ; Earl, Allyson ; Luebbe, Kristine Kilikina ; Crow, Susan ; Kirsten, Oleson
    Malama Maunalua intends to organize tree planting initiatives that effectively improve ecological and social conditions in Maunalua by collaborating with other organizations and entities that can act as partners and help the region reach urban forestry goals. Many organizations are considered stakeholders in Maunalua, but as partners, each have differing capacities and overall missions and objectives for urban greening. Properties and institutions have differing jurisdictions around the ability to plant. Additionally, certain urban areas have more conducive conditions for planting trees. It is important to conduct tree planting initiatives because deforestation due to development and historical ranching is associated with increased runoff, erosion, and sedimentation issues, decreased biodiversity, and temperature hot spots. Tree planting initiatives need exceptional teamwork and sharing of resources, as ineffective planning can cause redundancy or contradiction between stakeholders. For our project we plan to identify potential tree planting partners, their capacities, and resources for planting initiatives, and assist with forging long-term relationships between partners that results in positive impacts to the region. Increasing urbanization and deforestation in Maunalua has resulted in degraded social and ecological processes and Malama Maunalua is interested in urban greening to improve the health of the Maunalua Bay area, but past attempts of tree planting initiatives have fallen short due to differences in capabilities and capacities of partnering organizations. Therefore, we created a stakeholder matrix, an interactive map indicating areas of high need and potential, and included a document of the logistical aspects of a potential pilot project at Koko Head Elementary in an effort to improve the success of partnerships in reaching ecological and social goals in the region.
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    Discovering the barriers and motivators to pro-environmental behavior within the Maunalua Bay region, Oʻahu
    ( 2020-05-13) DeMattos, Chrislyn ; Wilmot, Ella ; Zavas, Lukanicole ; Oleson, Kirsten
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    Site Selection for Coral Restoration in Maunalua Bay, Oʻahu
    ( 2020-05-13) Ogden-Fung, Cameron ; Tsang, Anita ; Dwivedi, Vaibhavi ; Oleson, Kirsten ; Crow, Susan
    Maunalua Bay is recognized as one of the most degraded marine ecosystems in Hawaiʻi, demonstrating the urgency to restore coral populations in order to aid in the local community’s vision of a healthy and productive bay. The Gates Lab has partnered with Mālama Maunalua to restore coral in the bay, yet optimal coral restoration sites for survival success have not been selected. We worked with community partners to identify social and ecologically suitable restoration sites for the outplanting of resilient corals. After compiling available environmental data, a rating technique was used to evaluate site criteria and determine the optimal restoration sites across multiple objectives and scenarios. Paiko received the highest weighted scores in all scenarios, suggesting that it may be the most optimal site for coral outplanting and restoration within Maunalua Bay. This project will help restore coral communities in Maunalua Bay and reach Mālama Maunalua’s vision — “A Maunalua Bay where marine life is abundant, the water is clean and clear, and people take kūleana in caring for the Bay.”