Batch Measurement Extremum Seeking Control of Distributed Energy Resources to Account for Communication Delays and Information Loss

Date
2020-01-07
Authors
Sankur, Michael
Baudette, Maxime
Macdonald, Jason
Arnold, Daniel
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Abstract
Distributed Energy Resources (DER) have great potential to enhance the operation of electric power distribution systems. Previously, we explored the use of 2 Dimensional Extremum Seeking (2D-ES) control algorithms to enable model-free optimal control of DER to provide grid services to both the distribution and transmissions systems. Motivated by preliminary deployments of DER managed by 2D-ES algorithms in hardware-in-the-loop tests and in operational distribution grids, in this work, we extend the control scheme to accommodate communication delays and information loss. We propose a modification to the 2D-ES scheme to allow for the processing of batches of possibly noncontiguous objective function measurements at unknown and possibly uneven intervals. We provide a proof of the convergence of the batch 2D-ES (2D-BES) scheme when optimizing a generic convex objective function, as well as simulation results that demonstrate the suitability of the approach for substation active and reactive power target tracking.
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Keywords
Monitoring, Control, and Protection, distributed energy resources, distribution systems, model-free control, optimal contol, optimization
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