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Examining the Relationship Between Protein Intake and Source and Acanthosis Nigricans Among Young Children in the Children's Healthy Living Program in the United States Affiliated Pacific
|Title:||Examining the Relationship Between Protein Intake and Source and Acanthosis Nigricans Among Young Children in the Children's Healthy Living Program in the United States Affiliated Pacific|
|Contributors:||Revilla, Marie K. (advisor)|
Nutritional Sciences (department)
|Publisher:||University of Hawai'i at Manoa|
|Abstract:||BACKGROUND: Acanthosis Nigricans (acanthosis) is a dermatological condition that is|
characterized by a symmetrical, velvety, light brown to black pigmentation of the skin.
Acanthosis has been reported to be linked to obesity and is a physical marker on the skin for
insulin resistance. Previous research has focused on the relationship of high carbohydrate and fat
diets with insulin resistance. However, there are no studies to date analyzing the relationship
between protein intake and food sources to acanthosis in children.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine if the presence of acanthosis is related to
dietary protein consumption and protein source among children in the United States Affiliated
METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted on data collected from 3468, 2 to 8-year-old
children in 11 jurisdictions from the Children’s Healthy Living Program. One way ANOVA was
conducted to determine the relationship between acanthosis and total energy intake (kcal), mean
protein (g), fat (g) and dairy (servings) intake of the two days weighted for weekday/weekend,
mean meat (oz) intake and lean meat equivalents from egg (oz), poultry (oz), franks and
luncheon meats (oz), fish and seafood (oz), beef, pork and lamb (oz), nuts and seeds (oz), soy
(oz), and dry beans and peas (oz) weighted for weekday/weekend days and adjusted for within
person variance, and age (yrs). Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the protein
sources and whether children consuming protein intake within the age appropriate US Dietary
Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes were less likely to screen positive for acanthosis. All
models were adjusted for age, sex, overweight/obesity, energy intake (kcal) and mean total fat
RESULTS: There were 191 (5.5%) children that screened positively for acanthosis. The
prevalence of acanthosis was higher in overweight and obese children than in healthy weight
children (63.4% vs 35.6%). The total intake for protein was not significantly associated with
acanthosis. However, for every 1 oz increase in intake of meat per day, the risk of acanthosis
significantly increased by 16% (p= 0.009). Lean meat from meat, poultry, and fish (oz) was
significantly associated with acanthosis (p= 0.000). Poultry and meat intake were no longer
significantly associated with acanthosis in logistic regression models after controlling for
confounding variables. However, for every 1 oz increase in fish and seafood intake the risk of
acanthosis significantly increased by 22% (p=0.001). Mean total dairy intake had a protective
effect against the risk of acanthosis, where for every ½ serving increase in dairy, the risk
decreased by 40% (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in acanthosis risk between
children who consumed protein within the age appropriate Dietary Guidelines and Dietary
Reference Intakes as compared to those who did not.
CONCLUSION: Total protein intake did not affect the likelihood of screening positive for
acanthosis in young children from the United States Affiliated Pacific. However, meat intake,
specifically from fish and seafood did increase the risk for having acanthosis while dairy
consumption was shown to have a protective effect. Further study analyzing the different nutrient
components of protein sources such as fish, seafood, and dairy sources are warranted.
|Appears in Collections:||
M.S. - Nutritional Sciences|
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