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Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Chicken Products by Single Tube Nested Real-Time PCR

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Title:Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Chicken Products by Single Tube Nested Real-Time PCR
Authors:Wu, Biyu
Contributors:Li, Yong (advisor)
Food Science (department)
Keywords:Food science
Campylobacter jejuni
chicken product
Foodborne pathogen
Pathogen detection
show 2 moresalmonella
Single-tube nested real time PCR
show less
Date Issued:2019
Publisher:University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Abstract:Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni are highly infectious and leading causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the whole world, as well as in Hawaii where the reported cases were approximately 300 and 750 each year, respectively. The diseases associated with these pathogens are a major cause of morbidity, which is a significant public health concern. In the United States, chicken is commonly contaminated by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni. Traditional culture-based methods for their detection are time-consuming, cumbersome, and lacking in reliability. Thus, this study aimed to explore a molecular technique named single tube nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (STN-rtPCR) to overcome the drawbacks of culture-based methods and enable rapid detection of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken products.
Initially, a single tube nested PCR (STN-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of C. jejuni in the artificially contaminated ground chicken homogenate. Nested primers were designed based on the hippuricase (hipO) genes of C. jejuni. The annealing temperatures and concentrations of nested primers were optimized. The specificity of the established STN-PCR assay was evaluated with thirteen bacterial strains. The sensitivity of the assay was evaluated with a serial dilution of C. jejuni DNA and C. jejuni cells in the artificially contaminated ground chicken homogenate. In addition, the efficacy of the STN-rtPCR assay was compared with standard culture-based methods and conventional rtPCR for identification of C. jejuni in artificially contaminated ground chicken homogenate at different enrichment time. As a result, the optimum annealing temperatures for the outer and inner primers were 65oC and 55oC, respectively. The concentrations of outer and inner primers were chosen as 0.1 pmol and 40 pmol, respectively. No amplicon was generated using tested non-target bacterial strains as templates. The sensitivity was determined to be 10 C. jejuni DNA copies, which was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR with inner primers. Furthermore, this assay was able to detect as low as 36 CFU/ml of C. jejuni in artificially contaminated ground chicken homogenate without enrichment. Besides, after 24 h of enrichment, the ground chicken homogenate with an initial inoculum of 0.1 CFU/g of C. jejuni was identified correctly by STN-rtPCR, while it was not tested positive by both culture-based methods and conventional rtPCR until the sample had been enriched for 48 h. Moreover, single C. jejuni cells per gram ground chicken, that was tested positive by the culture-based methods after 48 h of enrichment, was identified correctly by STN-rtPCR after 6 h of enrichment.
Moreover, a multiplex STN-rtPCR assay was developed for concurrent detection of Salmonella spp. and C. jejuni. Nested primers for the detection of Salmonella spp. were designed to target the invA gene. The annealing temperatures and concentrations of Salmonella primers were optimized based on the amplification conditions of the STN-rtPCR assay for C. jejuni as described above. The sensitivity and efficacy of established multiplex STN-rtPCR assay were evaluated with pure DNA of S. Typhimurium and C. jejuni. The performance of the developed assay was demonstrated with the artificially contaminated chicken rinse. The results showed the established multiplex STN-rtPCR assay yielded expected amplicons of 226 bp and 173 bp for Salmonella spp. and C. jejuni, respectively, while no amplification products were observed with non-target bacteria. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 1×10-3 ng/µl of Salmonella and C. jejuni DNA, and 102 CFU/ml of Salmonella and C. jejuni in the chicken rinse. Additionally, the assay exhibited a comparable efficiency for co-amplifying 107 to 102 CFU/ml of Salmonella and C. jejuni in chicken rinse.
In summary, the developed single tube nested real-time PCR assays displayed a promising approach for simultaneously detecting Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken products with reduced time. It showed advantages of rapidity, high sensitivity and specificity, and low riks of cross contamination due to its closed-tube format. Moreover, this study would provide valuable information to food testing institutions and food manufacturers, which is necessary for preventing the spread of diseases and reducing economic losses.
Pages/Duration:122 pages
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/10125/63498
Appears in Collections: M.S. - Food Science


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