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Analysis of Spattering Activity at Halemaumau in 2015.

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Title:Analysis of Spattering Activity at Halemaumau in 2015.
Authors:Mintz, Bianca G.
Contributors:Geology & Geophysics (department)
lava lake
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Date Issued:May 2017
Publisher:University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Abstract:The classical explosive basaltic eruption spectrum is traditionally defined by the following end member eruption styles: Hawaiian and Strombolian. The field use of high-speed cameras has enabled volcanologists to make improved quantifications and more accurate descriptions of these classical eruptions styles and to quantify previously undecipherable activity (including activity on the basaltic eruption spectrum between the two defined end members). Explosive activity in 2015 at the free surface of the Halema‘uma‘u lava lake at Kīlauea exhibited features of both sustained (Hawaiian) fountaining and transient (Strombolian) explosivity. Most of this activity is internally triggered by the internal rise of decoupled gas bubbles from below the lake’s surface, but external triggering via rock falls, was also observed. Here I identify three styles of bubble bursting and spattering eruptive activity (isolated events, clusters of events, and prolonged episodes) at the lava lake, and distinguished them based on their temporal and spatial distributions. Isolated events are discrete single bubble bursts that persist for a few tenths of seconds to seconds and are separated by repose periods of similar or longer time scales. Cluster of events are closely spaced, repeated events grouped around a narrow point source, which persist for seconds to minutes. Prolonged episodes are groupings of numerous events closely linked in space and time that persist for tens of minutes to hours. Analysis of individual events from high-speed camera images indicates that they are made up of up to three phases: the bubble ascent phase, the bursting and pyroclast ejection phase, and the drain back (and rebound) phase. Based on the numerical parameters established in this study, the 2015 activity was relatively weak (i.e., of low intensity) but still falls in a region between those of continuous Hawaiian fountains and impulsive, short-lived Strombolian explosions, in terms of duration.
Description:M.S. Thesis. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa 2017.
Rights:All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
Appears in Collections: M.S. - Geology and Geophysics

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