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Effect of High Fiber and High Starch Alternative Feedstuffs on the Growth Performance and Gut Health of Broiler Chickens.
|Title:||Effect of High Fiber and High Starch Alternative Feedstuffs on the Growth Performance and Gut Health of Broiler Chickens.|
|Contributors:||Animal Sciences (department)|
|Keywords:||Macadamia nut cake|
|Date Issued:||Aug 2017|
|Publisher:||University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa|
|Abstract:||Corn, wheat and soybean meal (SBM) have been used as primary feedstuffs in animal feeding programs. However, it is necessary to explore and evaluate alternative feedstuffs to deal with variable price and supply of primary feedstuffs in current market. Two independent studies were conducted using Macadamia nut cake (MNC) and Cassava Root Chips (CRC) as high fiber and high starch feedstuff, respectively that could partially replace corn, wheat and SBM in broiler chicken diets. In each study, 180 d-old chicks were randomly and equally assigned to one of the treatments with corn-SBM based control diet for 42 d. In the MNC study 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% MNC included whereas, in the CRC study 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% of CRC was included in the total diet. Weight of birds and feed were recorded to calculate body weight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) as growth performance (GP) parameter and gut microbiota (MNC study), ileal morphology (CRC study) and volatile fatty acid (VFA, both studies) as gut health indicators.|
In MNC study, ADFI and FCR increased significantly at 20% MNC inclusion in starter and 15% in finisher and overall period compared to control group. Out of 89 sequences analyzed for 3 treatments, 0% MNC fed birds had mainly Ruminococcus (29%), Faecalibacterium (19%) and Bacteroides (16%); 10% MNC has Bacteroides (50%), Clostridium (20%), and Ruminococcus (10%); and 20% MNC consists Bacteroides (36%), Ruminococcus (29%), Clostridium (14%) and Faecalibacterium (11%) as the predominant bacteria. There was no compromise on growth performance of chicken up to 15% MNC inclusion due to high feed intake, growth of selective bacteria and their metabolites.
In CRC study, inclusion of 37.5 and 50% of CRC in the starter phase showed negative effects as BW (P <0.01) and ADG (P <0.05) decreased whereas, FCR increased (P <0.05). There was no significant difference in finisher except lower FCR in 50% inclusion level than 37.5%, suggesting that CRC can be included up to 50% in finisher diets. No statistical differences (P >0.05) in villus height, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio and villus surface area across treatments was found. These results suggest that inclusion of CRC up to 25% in starter and 50% in finisher broiler diets have comparable growth performance than corn-SBM based diets and can be advantageous from economic perspective as CRC are cheaper than corn. Further inclusion level can be optimized after economic analysis and supplementation with exogenous enzymes to enhance nutrient utilization.
|Description:||M.S. Thesis. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa 2017.|
|Rights:||All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.|
|Appears in Collections:||
M.S. - Animal Sciences|
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