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The Origin of Manganese Nodules: A Combined Theory with Special Reference to Palagonitization

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Title:The Origin of Manganese Nodules: A Combined Theory with Special Reference to Palagonitization
Authors:Morgenstein, Maury
Felsher, Murray
Date Issued:Jul 1971
Publisher:University of Hawai'i Press
Citation:Morgenstein M, Felsher M. 1971. The origin of manganese nodules: a combined theory with special reference to palagonitization. Pac Sci 25(3): 301-307.
Abstract:Manganese responsible for nodular development is derived from both
the oceans and the continents. The bulk of manganese is probably derived through
continental weathering. Ferruginous compounds are incorporated into ocean-bottom
sediment layers through submarine volcanism. Terrigenous manganese accretes by
the catalytic action (or possibly a redox reaction) of iron and ferromanganiferous
complexes present at the sediment-water interface. This results in the formation of
manganese nodules which are at once the products of both normal continental and
normal oceanic weathering . The rate of manganese accretion is partially dependent
upon the rate of diagenetic palagonitization. New measurements indicate linear
manganese accretion rates range from 1.7 to 8.7 mm/10^6 years. Rates for volumetric
manganese accretion range from 110 to 1;300 mm^3/ 10^6 years. Initial development
proceeds at the more rapid rate and subsequent accretion at the slower rate. Manganese
nodules with centers other than volcanic debris (shark's tooth centers) may be
formed as a result of related catalytic mechanisms.
Appears in Collections: Pacific Science Volume 25, Number 3, 1971

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