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Title: WRRCTMR No.53 An Investigation into Environmental Effects of Reuse of Sewage Effluent at the Kane'ohe Marine Corps Air Station Klipper Golf Course 
Author: Chang, Steven YK; Young, Reginald HF
Date: 1977-01
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: Chang SYK, Young RHF. 1977. An investigation into environmental effects of reuse of sewage effluent at the Kane'ohe Marine Corps Air Station Klipper Golf Course. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical memorandum report, 53.
Abstract: An investigation of waste water reuse by spray irrigation was conducted
at the Kane'ohe Marine Corps Air Station (KMCAS) Klipper Golf Course on Oahu.
The study was conducted in three phases: (l) waste water characterization of
the KMCAS Sewage Treatment Plant, (2) groundwater quality analysis, and (3)
air quality analysis of indicator bacterial levels during spray irrigation with waste water. Waste water analyses showed that the KMCAS Sewage Treatment Plant, employing
the trickling filter process with a final polishing pond, is capable of removing a high percentage of biodegradable substances and suspended solids. The effluent appears to be of good quality for agricultural irrigation use. High concentrations of sodium and chloride, due to brackish groundwater infiltration into the sewage system, were not considered to be a hazard to
the salt-tolerant bermudagrass. The two predominant soils on the KMCAS Klipper Golf Course, the Ewa silty clay loam (Low Humic Latosols) and the Jaucas (Regosols), appeared to be very effective in removing nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms from the applied effluent. The quality of the percolate does not present a hazard to
the groundwater quality. Runoff from the golf course does not present a hazard
to the adjacent surface waters. Analyses of spray irrigation fallout samples at the KMCAS Klipper Golf Course resulted in the isolation of coliform bacteria up to 91 m (300 ft) downwind of the sprinkler sources. Coliform bacteria recovery rates depended
upon the initial coliform bacterial concentrations in the effluent and upon
wind velocities. The presence and concentration of aerosolized coliform bacteria were not considered a public health hazard to golf course users, workers, or nearby residents.
Series/Report No.: WRRC Technical Memorandum Reports
53
Sponsorship: U.S. Department of the Interior; Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii Grant/Contract No. 14-34-0001-6012; A-064-HI
Pages/Duration: vi + 57 pages
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/6022
LC Subject Headings: Golf courses -- Irrigation -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Kaneohe (Hawaii)
Sewage irrigation -- Environmental aspects -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Water reuse -- Environmental aspects -- Hawaii -- Oahu.

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