Inheritance of Flower Color in Desmodium sandwicense E. Mey.

Park, Soon Jai
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F2 populations of 47 crosses among 11 parental lines of Desmodium sandwicense E. Mey, ( Spanish clover) bearing two broad flower color classes, purple colored and nearly-white flowers, were used to study the inheritance of flower color in connection with anthooyanin pigmentation. The flower color was under monogenic control with a dominant colored gene, Ca, and a recessive white flowered gene, ca. Anthocyanins were identified by paper chromatography and absorption spectre. It was found that there was only one kind of anthocyanin, Malvidin 3,5-digluocosida, responsible for various shades of color classes of flowers, and that the color variation resulted mainly from quantitative differences of pigment concentration. Dark purple petals contained about nine times as much anthocyanin pigment as pale or near white forms which had approximately 3.65 mg in 1 g of fresh petals. On two dimensional paper chromatograms, five major yellow spots of other flavonoid pigments were observed and they appeared to have a secondary role, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in production of narrow color variation of flowers. Several other plant characters were studied. Stem color ranging from dark red to green on the internodes was under control of a different pair of genes from those for the flower color, with a dominant gene for red, R, and a recessive gene for green stem, r. However, the two pairs of the genes were linked in the coupling phase with an average recombination value of 34%. Silver marking on the midrib of leaflet was controlled by a pair of genes with the silver marking under a dominant gene, Ls, control and with a recessive non-marking gene, is. Vigor and habit of plant growth were found to be associated to some degree and the spreading type of plants was usually vigorous in its performance.
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