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ItemLow-energy Bluetooth for Detecting Real-world Penetrance of Bystander Naloxone Kits: A Pilot Study( 2018-01-03)Opioid overdose is a growing public health emergency in the United States. The antidote naloxone must be administered rapidly after opioid overdose to prevent death. Bystander or "take-home" naloxone programs distribute naloxone to opioid users and other community members to increase naloxone availability at the time of overdose. However, data describing the natural history of take- home naloxone in the hands of at-risk individuals is lacking. To understand patterns of naloxone uptake in at-risk users, we developed a smart naloxone kit that uses low-energy Bluetooth (BLE) to unobtrusively detect the transit of naloxone through a hospital campus. In this paper, we describe development of the smart naloxone kit and results from the first 10 participants in our pilot study.
ItemWearable Biosensors to Evaluate Recurrent Opioid Toxicity After Naloxone Administration: A Hilbert Transform Approach( 2018-01-03)Opioid abuse is a rapidly escalating problem in the United States. Effective opioid reversal is achieved with the antidote naloxone, but often does not last as long as the offending opioid, necessitating in-hospital observation. Continuous physiologic monitoring using wearable biosensors represents a potential option to extend monitoring capability outside the clinical setting across the spectrum of opioid abuse including post- naloxone administration. The present study aims to identify the physiologic change that marks the cessation of naloxone’s effect. Eleven participants were recruited in the Emergency Department after naloxone administration for an opioid overdose and continuously monitored using a wearable biosensor measuring heart rate, temperature, electrodermal activity and accelerometry. Hilbert transform was used to evaluate a 90- minute post naloxone time point. Physiologic changes were consistent with the onset of opioid drug effect across parameters, but only changes in heart rate and skin temperature research statistical significance.