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    Beyond Enjoyment: A Cognitive-Emotional Perspective of Gamification
    ( 2018-01-03) Mullins, Jeffrey K. ; Sabherwal, Rajiv
    The success of gamified systems depends on their ability to engage players by eliciting both positive and negative emotions, but little guidance exists on creating emotional experiences through gamified design. This paper reviews work in psychology and neuroscience to highlight the interactive processes of cognition and emotion, and describes their relevance to gamification. Drawing on a model of the cognitive structure of emotions, and the mechanics-dynamics-emotions (MDE) framework for gamification, this paper advances a cognitive-emotional perspective of gamification and provides general propositions and directions for future research.
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    A Design Framework for Adaptive Gamification Applications
    ( 2018-01-03) Böckle, Martin ; Micheel, Isabel ; Bick, Markus ; Novak, Jasminko
    The application of gamification does not always achieve the expected results due to the shortcomings of the quite common "one size fits all" approach of standard gamification concepts. We therefore propose a design framework that can inform systematic development of adaptive gamification applications. The developed framework draws on the current body of gamification literature, focusing on the emerging research stream of adaptive gamification. It provides design paths and design principles that translate the individual elements into concrete guidelines to assist the design practice. The framework has been successfully applied to the design and implementation of a prototype application using gamification to incentivize knowledge exchange on an existing online platform for physicians in practical medical training. The evaluation in a case study indicated positive user acceptance and increased system usage after the introduction of the developed adaptive gamification solution.
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    What’s in the Game? Developing a Taxonomy of Gamification Concepts for Health Apps
    ( 2018-01-03) Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel ; Thiebes, Scott ; Tran, Minh Chau ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Gamification is a promising approach to tackle users’ infrequent and decreasing use of health apps. For this purpose, extant research provides developers of health apps with a vast number of different game elements. By abstracting from the implementation of single game elements and choosing a more holistic approach to gamification concepts, we iteratively develop a taxonomy of gamification concepts for health apps using inductive and deductive approaches and discuss its transferability to other gamification contexts. We contribute to a profound understanding of the main characteristics of gamification concepts and enable researchers and practitioners to classify and distinguish them. Our results provide interesting insights into the essential characteristics of health apps’ gamification concepts.
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    Gamification of Older Adults’ Physical Activity: An Eight-Week Study
    ( 2018-01-03) Kappen, Dennis ; Mirza-Babaei, Pejman ; Nacke, Lennart
    Designing fitness programs to combat a sedentary lifestyle and foster older adults’ motivation and goal-setting is not yet well-understood beyond point-based systems. To improve older adults’ (over 50 years) health and wellness, we studied a gamified physical activity intervention over eight weeks in an experiment (N=30) with three conditions (gamified, non-gamified, control). Our qualitative analysis showed the gamified group exhibited more engagement and interest in performing physical activity facilitated by technology. Results from our quantitative analysis indicated significance in the perceived competence dimension compared to the non-gamified and the control group. Perceived autonomy was significant for the non-gamified group against the control group. The findings from qualitative and quantitative analysis show motivation, enjoyment, and engagement were higher in the gam-ified group. This provides support for successfully facilitating older adults’ physical activity through gamified technology, which helped us create guide-lines for older adults’ adaptive engagement.
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    Gamified Workshops as Drivers for Attitudinal and Behavioral Shifts toward Sustainable Business Practices: The Role of Enjoyment, Curiosity and External Regulation
    ( 2018-01-03) Putz, Lisa-Maria ; Treiblmaier, Horst
    Gamification has recently gained a great deal of attention in various research communities. The application of game elements in non-game contexts has shown a lot of potential and the expectations of researchers and businesses are high. However, few studies exist that empirically test the effectiveness of gamification applications in business settings. To fill this gap, we present results from workshops that promoted environmentally friendly business practices. 261 individuals participated in a study in which various gamification elements were applied. Our findings illustrate that enjoyment and curiosity, both of which are strongly fostered by gamification elements, exert a significant influence on individuals’ attitudes and subsequently their behavioral intentions to adopt sustainable business practices. In contrast, the impact of external regulation turned out to be insignificant. The findings highlight the important role of enjoyment and curiosity for a sustainable change and bear important implications for academics and practitioners.