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Evaluation of Zingerone as a Male Lure of Melon Fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae Coquillet (Diptera:Tephritidae): Behavioral Modifications Upon Consumption and Field Attraction
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|Title:||Evaluation of Zingerone as a Male Lure of Melon Fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae Coquillet (Diptera:Tephritidae): Behavioral Modifications Upon Consumption and Field Attraction|
|Date Issued:||May 2016|
|Publisher:||[Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2016]|
|Abstract:||The males of many Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to, and feed upon, a few natural compounds (and their synthetic analogs), commonly termed ‘male lures’ or ‘lures’. Research has shown that lure feeding enables males to mate more successfully with conspecific females, and females are more attracted to the pheromones of lure-fed males. However, it has long been unclear exactly why lure feeding enhances male mating success. Furthermore, little is known about a recently discovered natural lure, zingerone which is found in the flowers of some orchids (Bulbophyllum spp.). Zingerone has unique properties relative to other male lures, and has garnered recent attention due to its potential as an attractant for ecological surveys and fruit fly pest management. This thesis investigates zingerone and its role as a modifier of melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) behavior and biology when consumed by males. Furthermore, this thesis assesses zingerone as an attractant of the melon fly in the field. These two areas of study are detailed in chapters 2 and 3 of this thesis.|
As outlined in chapter two, zingerone was fed to male B. cucurbitae to test if they mated more successfully. Furthermore, select life parameters of zingerone-fed males and females mated to zingerone-fed males were tested, including virgin male longevity, female fecundity, egg viability, and mated female longevity. Feeding on zingerone was found to enhance male mating success, but only for one day after zingerone feeding. Virgin males that fed on zingerone did not die at different rates than un-fed males, and females mated to zingerone-fed males had the same levels of fecundity and egg hatch as compared to females mated to un-fed males. These findings differ from those obtained in a previous study that observed higher fecundity associated with females mating with zingerone-fed males. However, different species were tested and therefore the effects of lure feeding on female fecundity may be species-specific. Interestingly females mated to zingerone-fed males had higher mortality when compared to females mated to un-fed males, suggesting females that mate with zingerone-fed males may incur a negative effect on fitness.
As outlined in chapter three, the attraction of wild melon flies to zingerone is assessed through
field trapping using zingerone, cue-lure, and mixtures of the two lures at a local farm on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. This experiment is the first to mix two different male lures that are both attractive to the same fruit fly species, and the potential for synergistic or inhibitory effects
of mixing were examined. It was observed that traps containing zingerone caught fewer flies than
cue-lure, and there was only an additive effect when the two were mixed. These results suggest
zingerone is unlikely to be effective at detecting or managing pestiferous populations of melon fly.
The studies conducted in this thesis expand upon previous research on the phenomenon of lure attraction by male Bactrocera fruit flies. Results suggest that the fitness benefit of lure feeding may not be obvious, and future research should focus on other fitness parameters across more species. Nevertheless, lures have tremendous value to fruit fly management, and elucidating questions surrounding the evolved trait of lure attraction may be uncover new ways to use lures for management purposes. Zingerone itself does not appear to be highly attractive to B. cucurbitae, and does not appear to interfere with cue-lure when mixed together as a single attractant of the melon fly. Thus, this observation suggests that zingerone, when added to cue-lure in the same wick, does not reduce the trap capture of B. cucurbitae assuming the quantity of cue-lure is sufficient for management purposes
|Description:||M.S. University of Hawaii at Manoa 2016.|
Includes bibliographical references.
|Appears in Collections:||
M.S. - Entomology|
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