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The Iron and Titanium Minerals in the Titaniferous Ferruginous Latosols of Hawaii

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Title:The Iron and Titanium Minerals in the Titaniferous Ferruginous Latosols of Hawaii
Authors:Walker, James L.
Sherman, G.D.
Katsura, Takashi
Date Issued:Jul 1969
Publisher:University of Hawai'i Press
Citation:Walker JT, Sherman GD, Katsura T. 1969. The iron and titanium minerals in the Titaniferous Ferruginous latosols of Hawaii. Pac Sci 23(3): 291-304.
Abstract:Titaniferous Ferruginous latosols are an important group of Hawaiian
soils. They have developed by pedogenetic weathering of the volcanic materials of
basic and ultrabasic lava flows and their associated pyroclastic materials, under
climatic conditions having definite alternating dry and wet seasons. The annual
rainfall range for these soils is 30 to 60 inches. Under the native and undisturbed
vegetation, these soils have a profile of very friable silt material with very little
horizon differentiation. When exposed to dehydration by removal of the protective
canopy cover of the forest, as occurs after forest fires, a tremendous change occurs in
the soil profile morphology. The change is greater than the morphological differences
which normally occur between the profiles of the Great Soil groups. A surface
indurated horizon develops in which the bulk density and particle density have an
approximate two-fold increase. The mineralogical changes are substantial. The amorphous
hydrated titanium and iron oxides are converted into good crystalline forms
of anatase, rutile, pseudo-brookite, titanohematite and titanomaghemite. In some
cases these minerals develop from the weathering of titanomagnetite-ilmenite mixed
crystals. The unusual characteristic of these soils is the apparent movement of the
colloidal material in a very short space of time, which results in an accumulation of
titaniferous minerals in the indurated surface horizon and the accumulation of
amorphous silica giving weak X-ray diffraction patterns of alpha quartz on the very
surface of the soil. Rutile is also identified along with the silica at the surface.
Aluminum oxides are removed to the lower horizons and in some cases accumulated
as irregularly shaped gibbsite nodules in scattered pockets below the clay horizon.
Appears in Collections: Pacific Science Volume 23, Number 3, 1969

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