National Family Health Survey Subject Reports

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    Wanted and unwanted fertility in selected states of India
    (Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences and Honolulu: East-West Center, 1998) Kulkarni, Sumati ; Choe, Minja Kim
    This report proposes new measures of wanted and unwanted fertility based on actual and wanted parity progression ratios and applies these procedures to NFHS data for eight states in India. In four large states with high fertility, levels of wanted fertility are high, at three or more children per married woman, and the proportion unwanted ranges from 20 to 28 percent of total marital fertility. In three states with moderate fertility, the proportion unwanted ranges from 31 to 34 percent. In Kerala, wanted fertility is already at replacement level, and there is very little unwanted fertility. Multivariate analysis indicates that education, religion, exposure to family planning messages on radio or television, experience of child loss, and son preference are important determinants of contraceptive use among women who want no more children. The NFHS Subject Reports is a series summarizing secondary analysis of data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) in India. The NFHS collected information from nearly 90,000 Indian women on a range of demographic and health topics. Conducted under the auspices of the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the survey provides national and state-level estimates of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning practice, maternal and child health, and the utilization of services available to mothers and children. IIPS conducted the survey in cooperation with consulting organizations and 18 population research centers throughout India. The East-West Center and a U.S.-based consulting firm, Macro International, provided technical assistance, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided financial support.
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    Fertility in India
    (Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences and Honolulu: East-West Center, 1998) Gandotra, M.M. ; Retherford, Robert D. ; Pandey, Arvind ; Luther, Norman Y. ; Mishra, Vinod K.
    An analysis of fertility differentials by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics reveals a wide diversity in the total fertility rate among Indian states. Total fertility tends to be high among women who live in rural areas, have little education, are Muslim, or belong to scheduled castes or tribes. Parity progression ratios tend to be high among women who have experienced one or more child deaths. They are low among women with one or more living sons and among women who are regularly exposed to the electronic mass media. The NFHS Subject Reports is a series summarizing secondary analysis of data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) in India. The NFHS collected information from nearly 90,000 Indian women on a range of demographic and health topics. Conducted under the auspices of the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the survey provides national and state-level estimates of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning practice, maternal and child health, and the utilization of services available to mothers and children. IIPS conducted the survey in cooperation with consulting organizations and 18 population research centers throughout India. The East-West Center and a U.S.-based consulting firm, Macro International, provided technical assistance, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided financial support.
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    Factors affecting sex-selective abortion in India and 17 major states
    (Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences and Honolulu: East-West Center, 2003) Retherford, Robert D. ; Roy, T.K.
    Birth histories collected during the first and second National Family Health Surveys (NFHS-1 and NFHS-2) show an unusually large proportion of male births in some population groups, which suggests that female fetuses are being aborted. Male births are particularly overrepresented in certain western and northern states, in families that already have daughters but no sons, and among women with a high level of education and media exposure. Analysis of women's ideal sex ratio (the ratio of ideal number of sons to ideal number of daughters) indicates that son preference is declining in almost all states and socioeconomic groups. Nevertheless, ideal sex ratios are still much higher than the biological norm, implying that considerable potential exists for further increases in levels of sex-selective abortion. The NFHS Subject Reports is a series summarizing secondary analysis of data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) in India. The NFHS collected information from nearly 90,000 Indian women on a range of demographic and health topics. Conducted under the auspices of the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the survey provides national and state-level estimates of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning practice, maternal and child health, and the utilization of services available to mothers and children. IIPS conducted the survey in cooperation with consulting organizations and 18 population research centers throughout India. The East-West Center and a U.S.-based consulting firm, Macro International, provided technical assistance, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided financial support. Printed copies are available from the East-West Center Research Program, Population and Health Studies. Single copies are available free by airmail and may be reproduced for educational use.
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    Does community access affect the use of health and family welfare services in rural India?
    (Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences and Honolulu: East-West Center, 2001) Das, N.P. ; Mishra, Vinod K. ; Saha, P.K.
    Focused on NFHS-1 results from India's four large northern states Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan this analysis shows that variations in utilization of family planning and maternal and child health services are explained mainly by variations in household- and individual-level socioeconomic and demographic factors, not by variation in community access to services. Apparently family planning and maternal and child health services are available at a sufficient level in rural India so that further improvements in physical accessibility alone will not make a substantial difference in the propensity to use these services. Quality of services is likely also to be important, but NFHS-1 did not assess service quality. The NFHS Subject Reports is a series summarizing secondary analysis of data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) in India. The NFHS collected information from nearly 90,000 Indian women on a range of demographic and health topics. Conducted under the auspices of the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the survey provides national and state-level estimates of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning practice, maternal and child health, and the utilization of services available to mothers and children. IIPS conducted the survey in cooperation with consulting organizations and 18 population research centers throughout India. The East-West Center and a U.S.-based consulting firm, Macro International, provided technical assistance, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided financial support. Printed copies are available from the East-West Center Research Program, Population and Health Studies. Single copies are available free by airmail and may be reproduced for educational use.
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    Alternative contraceptive methods and fertility decline in India
    (Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences and Honolulu: East-West Center, 1998) Pathak, K.B. ; Feeney, Griffith ; Luther, Norman Y.
    The Indian family welfare program has been dominated for decades by a reliance on female sterilization. NFHS results, however, show that Indian women tend to undergo sterilization only after giving birth to many children. This finding implies that further reliance on sterilization is not likely to reduce total fertility much below the current level of 3.4 children per woman. Efforts to continue India's fertility decline need to place more emphasis on temporary contraceptive methods. The NFHS Subject Reports is a series summarizing secondary analysis of data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) in India. The NFHS collected information from nearly 90,000 Indian women on a range of demographic and health topics. Conducted under the auspices of the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the survey provides national and state-level estimates of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning practice, maternal and child health, and the utilization of services available to mothers and children. IIPS conducted the survey in cooperation with consulting organizations and 18 population research centers throughout India. The East-West Center and a U.S.-based consulting firm, Macro International, provided technical assistance, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided financial support. Printed copies are available from the East-West Center Research Program, Population and Health Studies. Single copies are available free by airmail and may be reproduced for educational use.
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