The Avian History Reports

Permanent URI for this collection

This collection presents the Avian History Reports (AHR), A Historical Synthesis of Recent Endemic Hawaiian Birds (1979-1990). The reports are issued by the Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

PCSU and HPI-CESU (The Hawaii-Pacific Islands Cooperative Ecosystems Studies Unit)in cooperation with the Inventory & Monitoring Program Pacific Island Network are proud to provide technical reports produced by the Unit, as well as selected hard-to-find gray literature pertaining to Native Hawaiian and Pacific Island ecosystems.

News

The Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit
& The Hawaii-Pacific Islands cooperative
Ecosystems Studies Unit
University of Hawaii at Manoa
3190 Maile Way
St. John Hall #408
Honolulu, HI 96822-2279

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 20
  • Item
    History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: forest birds: ´Apapane, ´Akohekohe, & ´Uha´aihawane
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1987-07) Banko, Winston E.
    Himatione sanguinea is a small, deep crimson forest bird with white abdomen and tail coverts, and black tail and wings. It ranges from low to high elevation on all six forested islands. Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered some 1,279 observational notes, collection records, reports, and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1778 to 1978. All records are serially numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced as to source, and systematically analyzed. It is concluded that, compared with the 1890’s, H. sanquinea has depopulated significantly over wide areas in lowland forests on Kaua´i, O´ahu, Maui, and in mid to upper-elevation habitats on Moloka´i and Lana´i. On Hawai´i this species has largely disappeared from the lowlands and from mid and upper-elevation habitats in Hamakua and Kona. Only in the Külani area is H. sanquinea still evident in very large numbers (tens of thousands). Despite these declines, H. sanquinea remains the commonest Hawaiian honeycreeper in native forest throughout the Islands, and is the most likely forest bird for even the casual visitor to observe above ca. 3000 feet in suitable habitat. Palmeria dolei, or ‘Akohekohe, is a medium-sized, dark grey forest bird with whitish crest and scarlet-tipped feathers on the head and neck. It formerly ranged from low to high elevations on Moloka’i and East Maui. Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered some 87 observational notes, collection records, reports and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1888 to 1979. All records are serially numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced as to source and systematically analyzed. It is conclude that, compared with the 1890’s, ‘Akohekohe have become completely depopulated on the island of Moloka’i and in low to middle elevation forests up to about 5000 ft. elevation on East Maui. Its relative abundance in upper forests of East Maui presently ranges form rare at about 5000 to 5800 ft. to locally common or abundant from about 5800 to 6700 ft. elevation. Ciridops anna, or Ula’ai’hawane, is a small grey and red forest bird with black forehead, wings and tail. Endemic to the island of Hawai’i it ranged in Kohala, Mauna Kea, and possibly Kona and Kilauea Districts. Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered only 20 reports (mostly negative), collection records, and related statements on its relative abundance and geographical distribution. There is no evidence in the historical record that ornithologists ever glimpsed Ula’ai’hawane in the wild. Only one of five spec imens extant is preserved with date and locality of collection. No substantiated record of this species exists after native Hawaiians reported seeing it above ‘O’okala about 1892. It is presumed extinct.
  • Item
    History of endemic Hawaiian birds: population histories, species accounts: scrub-grassland birds: Nene - Hawaiian Goose
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1990-12) Banko, Winston E. ; Elder, William H.
    The Nene or Hawaiian Goose (Nesochen sandvicensis) is a medium-sized brownish goose with black on chin and throat, distinctively textured black-naped neck, long legs, and half-webbed feet. Endemic to Hawaii, and reportedly Maui, this unique terrestrial goose was recognized as "emblematic" of Hawaii by the Territorial Legislature in 1957. Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered some 1,464 observational records, reports, recollections and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution of this species from 1778 to 1948. Records are serially numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced as to source, and systematically documented.
  • Item
    History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: freshwater birds: Hawaiian Gallinule ´Alae-´ula
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1987-03) Banko, Winston E.
    Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis is a medium sized slate-grey water bird (Rallidae) with a red bill and frontal shield. Currently resident only on Kaua´i and O´ahu, this race existed historically on Moloka´i, Maui, and Hawai´i. Exhaustive search of literature and government reports uncovered some 2,756 observational notes, collection records, census reports, and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1779 to 1983. Data are individually numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced and systematically reviewed. Abundant evidence shows that ´Alae-´ula were common and widely distributed in swamps and ponds throughout the major islands in the 18901s. By 1903, population decline had been noted in areas where they had been formerly abundant. The last record of the occurrence of this species on the island of Hawaiti was in 1898, on Maui in 1900, and on Moloka´i in 1973. On O´ahu, comprehensive surveys of over 90 water bird habitats in the 1970's and early 1980% found substantial numbers of ´Alae-´ula only in the lotus and taro fields of Haleiwa where a maximum number of 118 were counted in 1979, and only a few in a dozen or so other habitats. On Kaua´i, systematic surveys of some 140 water birds habitats in the 1970’s and early 1980’s recorded only 50-75 ´Alae-´ula in the Hanalei area, a dozen or so in two other areas, and 2 or 3 in 12-15 lesser populated habitats. Total population of ´Alae-´ula Statewide was estimated at 750 in 1982, the majority obviously missed in semi-annual censuses. In view of its long uninterrupted decline, and lack of substantive conservation measures, it is concluded that this species will continue to slowly depopulate for an indefinite period.
  • Item
    History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: freshwater birds: Koloa-maoli
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1987-03) Banko, Winston E.
    Anas wyvilliana is a medium-sized (20" long) duck with variable mallard-like plumage. It was first described by P.L. Sclater in 1878. A total of 69 specimens are known world-wide in some 13 widely-scattered museums. Exhaustive search of literature, unpublished journals, and government reports uncovered some 3,006 observational notes, collection records, and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1778 to 1982. Data are serially numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced and systematically reviewed. Observers before 1900 recorded the Koloa as common and widespread, though becoming scarcer, in freshwater habitats on all of the major Islands. After 1903 there is a near-absolute 30-year gap of information on population status. Repeated surveys beginning in the 1940's have recorded successive population declines on Kaua´i, transient numbers on Ni'ihau, disappearance on O'ahu and Hawai´i, and extinction on Moloka´I and Maui. Release of some 853 captive-raised Koloa on O'ahu and Hawai'i from 1958 to 1980 has failed to establish clearly obvious self-sustaining wild flocks. It is concluded that relict numbers of this species on Kaua´i will continue to decline long-term and that restoration efforts, as presently known, will fail to effect re-establishment of self-supporting wild populations, except perhaps in token numbers.
  • Item
    History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: freshwater birds: Hawaiian Coot ´Alae-´ke´oke´o
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1987-03) Banko, Winston E.
    Fulica americana alai is a medium-sized, slate-grey water bird (Rallidae) with a high white bill. It is resident on Kaua´i, O´ahu, Moloka´i, Maui, Hawai´i, and on Ni´ihau after seasonal rains. Exhaustive search of literature and government reports uncovered some 4,055 census results, observational notes, collection records and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1824 to 1983. All data are serially numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced and systematically reviewed. Analysis of recent records indicates a total pre-breeding population of ca. 1,400 individuals were distributed among the various islands, as follows: Kaua´i, 70 percent; Ni´ihau, 4 percent; O´ahu, 11 percent; Moloka´i, 2 percent; Maui, 7 percent; and Hawai´i, 6 percent. Recent post-breeding populations averaging ca. 1,550 individuals were found to be similarly distributed. The total population is judged to be relatively stable long-term.