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WRRCTR No.44 Identification of Irrigation Return Water in the Sub-surface, Phase III: Kahuku, Oahu and Kahului and Lahaina, Maui
|Title:||WRRCTR No.44 Identification of Irrigation Return Water in the Sub-surface, Phase III: Kahuku, Oahu and Kahului and Lahaina, Maui|
|Authors:||Tenorio, Pedro A.|
Young, Reginald H.F.
Burbank, Nathan C Jr.
Lau, L. Stephen
Hawaiian Commercail and Sugar Co.
Pioneer Mill Co.
show 1 moreLahaina, Maui
|LC Subject Headings:||Groundwater -- Hawaii.|
Irrigation water -- Hawaii.
Water quality -- Hawaii.
|Date Issued:||Dec 1970|
|Publisher:||Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa|
|Citation:||Tenorio PA, Young RHF, Burbank NC, Lau LS. 1970. Identification of irrigation return water in the sub-surface, Phase III: Kahuku, Oahu and Kahului and Lahaina, Maui. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 44.|
|Series:||WRRC Technical Report|
|Abstract:||This study continued the joint research effort undertaken by the Water Resources Research Center and the Honolulu Board of Water Supply in 1967 to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of irrigation return water. Initial work concentrated on the Pearl Harbor-Waipahu area of Oahu. The phases reported herein included both Kahuku Plantation on Oahu and the sugar cane cultivation areas of central and West Maui (Pioneer Mill Co. and Hawaiian Commercail and Sugar Co.). Composite well, spring, and stream samples were taken and analyzed in the laboratory for the following constituents: bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, silica, boron, chloride, nitrate, sodium, potassium, bromide, flouride, sulfate, and total hardness. On the basis of increased index constituents over uncontaminated ground-water sources used to identify the presence of irrigation return water, it is evident, as previously concluded by Visher and Mink (1964), such irrigation return water, is definitely present in the basal water bodies underlying the three study areas. Considerable increases in the nitrate and sulfate indices, especially, and in the bicarbonate and silica indices, as shown by various methods of interpretation of water quality data obtained over a period of approximately two years or exceeding one complete cycle of plainting and harvesting of sugarcane, verify the strong influence of irrigation agricultural practices in altering the overall quality of the basal water sources in the three areas. The basal water quality of the HC&S aquifer is most affected regionally, as well as locally, by the prevailing agricultural practices. The deterioration of the water is dues in part to fertilization and to a greater exten to heavy pumping and recycling of the basal water. Water quality in the Pioneer Mill area parallels that of HC&S, although on a regional basis, the basal water quality, unlike that of the Pioneer Mill area, is not as deteriorated. Local effects of pumping are also especially noticeable in the Pioneer Mill area. Ground-water quality in the Kahuku area shows the obvious presence of irrigation return water indices, but, unlike the two plantations on Maui, the magnitude of the increases relative to uncontaminated water sources is considerably smaller. The effect of fertilization on Kahuku may be considered to be a principal factor in the regional distribution of index constituents with a relatively uniform nitrate distribution throughout. Local effects of pumping are quite pronounced and influence overall increases of indices, indicating that where heavy pumping takes place for irrigation, the increase in index constituents are correspondingly greater.|
|Pages/Duration:||vii + 53 pages|
|Rights:||Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States|
|Appears in Collections:||
WRRC Technical Reports|
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