Pacific Science Volume 57, Number 2, 2003

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    Abstracts of Papers. Twenty-seventh Annual Albert L. Tester Memorial Symposium, 21-22 March 2002
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2003-04)
    The Albert L. Tester Memorial Symposium is held in honor of Professor Albert L. Tester, who, at the time of his death in 1974, was senior professor of zoology at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. The faculty and students of the Department of Zoology proposed an annual symposium of student research papers as a means of honoring, in a continuing and active way, Dr. Tester's lively encouragement of student research in a broad range of fields within marine biology. Papers reporting original research on any aspect of science are solicited from students at the university and these papers are presented at the symposium, which takes place during the spring semester. Income from contributions to the Albert L. Tester Memorial Fund of the University of Hawai'i Foundation is used to provide prizes for the two best papers, judged on quality, originality, and importance of research reported, as well as the quality of the public presentation. The Waildld Aquarium presents the Mike Weekley Award, based on the same criteria. Judges include Department of Zoology faculty members and the previous year's student award winners. In addition, a distinguished scholar from another university or research institution is invited to participate in the symposium as a judge and to present the major symposium address. This year the guest participant was Dr. Marc Mangel, Professor of Environmental Studies at the University of California at Santa Cruz. Hot
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    Charcoal Stratigraphies for Kaua'i and the Timing of Human Arrival
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2003-04) Burney, Lida Pigott ; Burney, David A.
    Evidence from microscopic charcoal particle stratigraphy is presented from nine locations distributed throughout Kaua'i in the Hawaiian Islands, including windward and leeward coastal sites and interior bogs at elevations ranging up to 1220 m. The overall trends are comparable with those reported for other mesic tropical island areas lacking strong seasonality, beginning with a general dearth of charcoal in sediments that predate evidence for humans on the island, followed by an increase of an order of magnitude or more at a time that probably represents first human presence at the site. In most cases, this initial peak or plateau of increased charcoal from presumably anthropogenic sources is followed by a prehistoric decrease and a second peak after European contact. Charcoal evidence presented here suggests a human presence in leeward coastal areas beginning ca. 830 ± 50 yr B.P. (1050-1095, 1140-1280 cal yr A.D.). One windward site, Limahuli Bog, may show charcoal evidence for humans as early as 1470 ± 60 yr B.P. (440-670 cal yr A.D.), but resolution is poor in the upper part of that core. Charcoal and sedimentological evidence suggests that Hawaiians were constructing fishponds as early as about eight centuries ago and that the massive stoneworks forming the Alekoko or Menehune Fishpond, probably the largest prehistoric stone structure in the Hawaiian Islands, may have been completed by 580 ± 30 yr B.P. (1305-1420 cal yr A.D.). Charcoal peaks in prehuman times, particularly at 3800 ± 40 yr B.P. (4080-4290 cal yr B.P.), may be associated with prolonged drought conditions. Charcoal particles are virtually absent from the late Pleistocene sediments collected from interior bogs.
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    Morphological and Genetic Variation in the Endemic Seagrass Halophila hawaiiana (Hydrocharitaceae) in the Hawaiian Archipelago
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2003-04) McDermid, Karla J. ; Gregoritza, Monica C. ; Reeves, Jason W. ; Freshwater, D Wilson
    The endemic seagrass Halophila hawaiiana Doty & Stone is found in discrete populations throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Morphological characteristics of plants from Midway Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui were measured and compared. Striking variation in leaf length, leaf width, leaf length to width ratio, and internode length was evident among the 18 collection sites sampled at depths ranging from 0.32 to 18 m. DNA sequence analyses of a chloroplast-genome, single-base repeat locus in ramets from nine different collections found only two repeat haplotypes. Repeat haplotypes were fixed at all collection sites and for all islands except O'ahu.
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    Phylogeny and Biogeography of Pacific Rubus Subgenus ldaeobatus (Rosaceae) Species: Investigating the Origin of the Endemic Hawaiian Raspberry R. macraei
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2003-04) Morden, Clifford W. ; Gardner, Donald E. ; Weniger, Dana A.
    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndhF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.
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    Wood Anatomy of Hawaiian and New Guinean Species of Tetramolopium (Asteraceae): Ecological and Systematic Aspects
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2003-04) Carlquist, Sherwin ; Lowery, Timothy K.
    Qualitative and quantitative features are reported for five Hawaiian and one New Guinean species of Tetramolopium. Tetramolopium humile differs from the other Hawaiian species in its numerous narrow vessels, numerous vasicentric tracheids, and wide rays. Although these features are adaptive in the dry alpine localities of T. humile, they would be adaptive also in the remaining species, which are from dry to moderately dry lowland localities. Thus, one can consider these features of T. humile as systematic indicators. The wood of T. pumilum (New Guinea) has distinctive wide, tall rays that may be related to the short stems in this species; T. pumilum has wood more mesomorphic than that of any of the Hawaiian species. Within Hawaiian Tetramolopium, wood anatomy correlates with dryness of habitat. The species of Tetramolopium studied have highly xeromorphic wood in comparison with woods of dicotyledons at large.
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