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Title: WRRCTR No.182 Groundwater recharge with Honouliuli wastewater irrigation: Ewa plain, southern Oahu, Hawaii 
Author: Lau, L. Stephen; Hardy, W Roy; Gee, Henry K.; Moravcik, Philip S.; Dugan, Gordon L.
Date: 1989-08
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: Lau LS, Hardy WR, Gee HK, Moravcik PS, Dugan GL. 1989. Groundwater recharge with Honouliuli wastewater irrigation: Ewa plain, southern Oahu, Hawaii. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 182.
Abstract: High-rate groundwater replenishment by irrigation with primary chlorinated effluent from the
Honouliuli Wastewater Treatment Plant was tested in a 3-yr demonstration project for the Ewa limestone aquifer, Oahu. Among the six options tested with different combinations of crops, irrigation methods, and effluent application rates, the most acceptable was California grass, which was grown in plots (0.5 acre each) surrounded by an earth berm and border-flood irrigated intermittently at an average rate of 20 in./wk. For this option, the production of 1 mgd of recharge water requires a 14.6-acre plot. For all options, recharge through 3 ft of vegetated, fairly permeable soil overlying 30 ft of permeable, reef limestone rock stabilized groundwater chlorides to 245 mg/l, stripped virtually all effluent nitrogen, and inactivated effluent bacteria. Toxics analyzed (pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals) were all below action or detectable levels. The natural system, which acts as a "living filter", outperformed secondary treatment in improving the water quality. No adverse environmental effects were identified: no surface runoff, no insects, and no groundwater contamination. Except for slight clogging in the California grass plots toward the end of each harvest cycle, surface soil clogging was not evident. Plots were free of shallow standing water except for a few hours on the day of effluent application. The mild odor noted only infrequently on site was less than that at the treatment plant. The biomass produced was of usable quality and adequate quantity. The simulated recharge plume spread in the aquifer several hundred feet from the site after the irrigation phase of a California-grass growth cycle. Project results favor a large scale water reclamation facility which will upgrade the Honouliuli primary effluent to a quality suitable for subsequent reuse.
Series/Report No.: WRRC Technical Report
Description: Division of Water and Land Development, Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawaii; and The Estate of James Campbell Grant/Contract No. B378,B382
Pages/Duration: xx + 121 pages
Keywords: groundwater recharge, wastewater irrigation, flood irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler, irrigation, aerosols, sugarcane, flood-drip irrigation, border-flood irrigation, effluent irrigation, aquifer recharge, caprock limestone aquifer, California grass, Ewa, Oahu, Hawaii
LC Subject Headings: Artificial groundwater recharge -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Groundwater flow -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Sewage disposal in the ground -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Sewage irrigation -- Hawaii -- Oahu.

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