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Some Aspects of the Ecology of a Bivalve Mollusk in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii
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|Title:||Some Aspects of the Ecology of a Bivalve Mollusk in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii|
|Authors:||Higgins, John H.|
|LC Subject Headings:||Clams.|
Marine ecology--Hawaii--Kaneohe Bay.
Kaneohe Bay (Hawaii)
|Issue Date:||01 Jun 1969|
|Publisher:||University of Hawai'i, Honolulu|
|Citation:||Higgins, John H. Some Aspects of the Ecology of a Bivalve Mollusk in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1969.|
|Abstract:||The bivalve, Tapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve, 1867, was introduced. in Hawaii around 1900 (Bryan, 1918). The clam originally came from Japan where, according to Cahn (1951), it is one of the most important commercial species of shellfish. It is cultured in bays throughout Japan, Korea, and the Philippines. T-apes was accidentally introduced to the Pacific coast of North America when Japanese oysters, Crassostrea gigas, were brought there early in the century (Bonnot, 1935). The clam spread rapidly and is now one of the more important commercial clams there. Tapes philippinarum is a member of the family Veneridae and appears in the literature under a variety of names including T. semidecussata Adams and Reeve 1864, and T. japonica Deshayes, 1853. Various generic names are also applied: Venerupis, Venus, Ruditapes and Paphia. The clam has been identified for me as Tapes philippinarum by Dr. E. A. Kay, who compared Hawaiian shells with type material at the British Museum (Natural History) and will be so called throughout this paper. A common name, the Japanese littleneck clam, is almost universally accepted; "Asari" is the Japanese name. The most extensive work concerning life history and ecology of Tapes was done by Cahn (1951) who summarizes the Japanese literature. Its natural history and shell pattern were described by Shaw (1950). Other references are limited to mention of its first appearance on the Pacific Coast (Keen, 1947; Kincaid, 1947a, 1947b; Neave, 1944). After its introduction to Hawaii the clam apparently spread rapidly in shallow bays on Oahu and was used extensively as food. Bryan (1918) reported that it became well established in the Kalihi and Moanalua mud-flats. Ostergaard, (1930) and Dall, (1938) confirmed its successful establishment. Edmondson, (1946) also stated that after its introduction, Tapes philippinarum multiplied rapidly in shallow bays about Oahu and was common in Honolulu fish markets. Distribution of Tapes throughout the islands today is poorly known, but its abundance appears to have declined since the initial spread. The beds in the Kalihi, Moanalua, and Pearl Harbor mud-flats have disappeared (personal communication-- Mr. Sam Okamura, Hawaii Institute of :Marine Biology, and Mr. Henry Sakuda, State Division of Fish and Games)."'Kaneohe Bay, Oahu is the only area where there are enough -for exploitation. The earliest recorded planting in Kaneohe Bay occurred in 1920 (Dall, 1938). The clam became successfully established and, though there is no documented information, presumably spread considerably. At present it is abundant on the shallow water reef :platforms of the southeast Bay and is harvested extensively during a short clam season regulated by the State Division of Fish and Game. The waters of southeastern Kaneohe Bay have undergone change recently because of extensive building ashore which has increased the flow from the two streams which empty here (Bathen, 1968). In addition, two recently constructed sewer outfalls discharge treated sewage into the southeast section. Exchange with ocean water is slow leading to accumulation of sewage and water from run-off (Bathen, 1968). Accompanying these changes have been undocumented reports of atypical phytoplankton blooms, an increase in the abundance of Tapes, and a decrease in the population of the bra-chiopod Lingula reevii. These changes could be caused by increased run-off and pollution in this sector of the bay although there is no documentation. With these factors in mind, this study was made to: (1) to collect relevant ecological data particularly on the distribution and growth of clams in various parts of the bay in order to determine what limits distribution, and any effects pollution may have on the clam beds; (2) to determine interaction of Tapes with other species, particularly predators and L. reevii, a co-occurring filter feeder; and (3) to study the effects of harvesting on abundance and population structure.|
Bibliography: leaves 46-47.
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|Appears in Collections:||M.S. - Oceanography|
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