Pacific Science Volume 52, Number 4, 1998

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    Wood Anatomy of Dubautia (Asteraceae: Madiinae) in Relation to Adaptive Radiation
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1998-10) Carlquist, Sherwin
    Qualitative and quantitative features are reported for stem wood of 13 collections of 12 species of the Hawaiian genus Dubautia. Although the species share a basic wood plan, quantitative expressions range widely, especially with respect to vessel element dimensions, vessel density, vessel grouping, length of libriform fibers, and dimensions of multiseriate rays. Ecology and habit explain most of the diversity. Variations in the ratio between vessel element length and libriform fiber length are correlated with habit both within Dubautia and when Dubautia is compared with Argyroxiphium and Wilkesia. Other variation in wood is related mostly to ecology. The Dubautia species of wet forest have high mesomorphy ratio values. Low mesomorphy ratio values occur in species of recent or dry lava (e.g., D. scabra) or dry alpine areas (D. menziesii); mesomorphy ratio values in the xeric species are comparable with those in Argyroxiphium. Highly xeromorphic wood in the bog species D. waialealae may reflect recent immigration from a dry habitat or peculiar features of the bog habitat. The lianoid D. latifolia has notably xeromorphic wood, which may reflect recent entry into wet forest or else the tendency for lianas in general to have xeromorphic features that confer conductive safety. All species of Dubautia show fiber dimorphism. Dubautia is a superb example of adaptive radiation, in contrast to the Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae), which has shifted into various habitats with little change in wood anatomy, or the Galapagos genus Scalesia, all species of which must survive periods of drought and have xeromorphic wood.
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    Two New Species of the Genus Bavayia (Reptilia: Squamata: Diplodactylidae) from New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1998-10) Bauer, Aaron M. ; Whitaker, Anthony H. ; Sadlier, Ross A.
    Two new species of the diplodactylid gecko Bavayia are described from restricted areas within the main island of New Caledonia. Both species are characterized by small size, a single row of preanal pores, and distinctive dorsal color patterns. One species is known only from the endangered sclerophyll forest of the drier west coast of New Caledonia, where it was collected in the largest remaining patch of such habitat on the Pindai Peninsula. The second species occupies the maquis and adjacent midelevation humid forest habitats in the vicinity of Me Adeo in south-central New Caledonia. Although relationships within the genus Bavayia remain unknown, the two new species appear to be closely related to one another.
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    Lioscincus maruia, A New Species of Lizard (Reptilia: Scincidae) from New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1998-10) Sadlier, Ross A. ; Whitaker, Anthony H. ; Bauer, Aaron M.
    A new species of scincid lizard, Lioscincus maruia Sadlier, Whitaker & Bauer, n. sp., is described from the central ranges of New Caledonia. It is a moderate-sized species of skink with a particularly long tail. It is known from only a single location in maquis shrubland and appears to be restricted to this habitat type. The species is considered vulnerable because of the restricted and fragmented nature of its habitat, and the potential for fire and mining activities to threaten that habitat type. In overall morphology Lioscincus maruia is most similar to Lioscincus tillieri Ineich & Sadlier, a species from maquis habitat in adjacent ranges to the south.
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    Balistes polylepis and Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus, Two Large Triggerfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Balistidae) from the Hawaiian Islands, with a Key to Hawaiian Species
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1998-10) Randall, John E. ; Mundy, Bruce C.
    The large triggerfish Balistes polylepis Steindachner, the most common species of the family in the eastern Pacific, was previously reported from Hawai'i as Pseudobalistes juscus (Bloch & Schneider) or questionably as B. polylepis; the identification as B. polylepis is here confirmed. Because of its rare occurrence in Hawai'i, it was believed to be a waif; however, an underwater photograph of one guarding a nest indicates that spawning has occurred in Hawai'i. A second large balistid, Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus Randall, Matsuura & Zama, wide ranging from the western Indian Ocean to Cocos Island, Costa Rica, is recorded from the Hawaiian Islands, where it is known from 46 to 165 m. A key is presented to the 11 Hawaiian species of the Balistidae. An enigmatic specimen of Canthidermis reportedly collected in Hawaiian waters is also discussed.
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