Pacific Science Volume 34, Number 2, 1980

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    Hawaiian Alpine Lake Level, Rainfall Trends, and Spring Flow
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Woodcock, Alfred H.
    During the period May 1965 to November 1978 (162 months) 127 measurements were made of Lake Waiau water levels and overflow. This small perched body of water is located in Puu Waiau crater, at about 3970-m altitude, near the summit of the dormant volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Differences in water level are compared to the Hawaii statewide rainfall index, and to Waihu Spring flow. It is suggested that lake level is a useful indicator of rainfall trends among the islands. Measurements of the tritium concentrations of Puu Waiau crater perched lake and groundwaters, and of the nearby spring waters on the south slopes of Mauna Kea, are used to indicate that seepage from the lake is probably the principal spring-water source during drought periods. The tritium measurements suggest that something blocks direct groundwater seepage out of the Waiau crater, and indications are that the blockage is ice in a subsurface layer of relict permafrost. Study of the changes in lake and groundwater levels during the 30-month dry period July 1976 to December 1978 indicates that the groundwater basin probably occupies almost the entire Waiau crater catchment area (i.e., ~ 10 5 m2). It is suggested that permanent water-level and overflow gauges be established at Lake Waiau, and that long-term records from these gauges would be climatologically and hydrologically useful.
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    Aspects of the Natural History of the Midwater Fish Lycodapus mandibularis (Zoarcidae) in Monterey Bay, California
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Anderson, M Eric
    Aspects of the biology of the mesopelagic fish Lycodapus mandibularis are considered, primarily on the basis of closing midwater trawl samples from Monterey Bay, California. Major population centers focus in eastern North Pacific submarine canyons and deep-water inlets. The species undergoes a diel vertical migration, but not all individuals may participate in each period. Ripe individuals were found year-round and spawning is nonseasonal, probably occurring in midwater. Age estimates from otoliths showed the greatest proportion of the population sampled was of age classes III and IV, the ages at onset of maturity. The oldest individuals found were 5 years old, but estimates from the oldest fish may be biased. Feeding during the day was chiefly in surface waters, but night or day feeding in deep water may have occurred. Food items of young fish were different from those of adults but both fed heavily on planktonic crustaceans. Fish in California waters were parasitized by the nematode Thynnascaris aduncum and to a lesser degree by the copepod Cardiodectes medusaeus.
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    A Description of the Vexillifer Larvae of Pyramodon ventralis and Snyderidia canina (Pisces, Carapidae) with Comments on Classification
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Markle, Douglas F. ; Olney, John E.
    The first identified vexillifers (4.4, 6.0 mm HL) and 2 juveniles (10.5, 11.4 mm HL) of Pyramodon ventralis are described and compared with vexillifer larvae of Snyderidia canina (3.6,5.7 mm HL). The presence of pelvic fins, a visceral cradle, and a greater number of pectoral-fin rays distinguishes larvae of P. ventralis from larvae of S. canina. Pyramodontine vexillifers are characterized as follows: a deep, compressed head and trunk with a depth at the first anal ray of 0.77-0.92 HL; a short predorsal distance of 1.12-1.27 HL; more than 24 pectoral-fin rays; a proximal vexillum radial with a descending anterior process, a wavy ventral contour, and a posterior process passing under the anterior dorsal-fin radials; a pronounced second neural spine; and long anal-fin radials. Identification of a vexillifer larva of Pyramodon establishes the vexillifer larva as a unique specialization of all Carapidae and reinforces the classification of Pyramodon as a close relative of Snyderidia.
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    Larvae of the Ophichthid Eel Genus Neenchelys in the Indo-Pacific
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Castle, PHJ
    Larvae of Neenchelys Bamber are rather short and deep bodied, reaching about 75 mm before metamorphosis. They have a relatively short gut which is pigmented and slightly swollen at intervals along its length, as in larvae of other myrophine ophichthids. Neenchelys leptocephali also have a conspicuous midlateral patch of pigment about midway between the anus and caudal tip, and develop ova before metamorphosis.
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    The Cirolanidae (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Australia: The Genus Pseudolana from the Queensland Coasts with Description of Three New Species
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Bruce, Niel L.
    The cirolanid genus Pseudolana is fully described, as are 4 species, of which 3 are new to science, I having been previously described as Orolana concinna. The relationship of the new genus to other cirolanid genera is discussed. Brief notes are given on the habitat and distribution of the members of the genus.
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