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The biogeography, phylogenetics, and population structure of Hawaiian lepidoptera, with a focus on the genus omiodes (crambidae)
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|Title:||The biogeography, phylogenetics, and population structure of Hawaiian lepidoptera, with a focus on the genus omiodes (crambidae)|
|Authors:||Haines, William Parker|
|Issue Date:||Dec 2011|
|Publisher:||[Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [December 2011]|
|Abstract:||Hawaiian Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) represent a major biodiversity component, with almost 1000 described species, but relatively little is known about their patterns of diversification. This dissertation explored broad diversification patterns of Hawaiian Lepidoptera, then narrowed to focus a single genus, Omiodes (Crambidae), particularly of interest because of its host plant associations. Five species feed only on non-native banana, presumably due to rapid speciation within the last 1200 years.|
In Chapter 1, I related lepidopteran biodiversity to predictor variables (area, age, isolation, and topographic heterogeneity) on the island level. The species area relationship (SAR) of Lepidoptera in Hawaii was steep compared other archipelagoes and area, age, and topographic heterogeneity were positively related to diversity. Chapter 2 explored the relative contributions of colonization and diversification to taxonomic disharmony. Binomial probabilities showed that only one family (Tortricidae) was overrepresented among native lineages compared to a global species pool. I found no relationship between colonization success and body size or host specificity, but interestingly, colonization success of native and non-native species was correlated. Among 58 Lepidoptera lineages, diversification was inversely related to mean body size, likely because small moths are poorly adapted for active dispersal.
In Chapters 3 and 4, I reconstructed molecular phylogenies for Omiodes species worldwide and within Hawaii. Omiodes worldwide fell within a well-supported clade that included the type species. The center of origin for Omiodes appears to be the Paleotropics, giving rise to both Hawaiian and neotropical clades. Within Hawaii, I estimated divergence times of 3.2 MYA for the entire lineage, and 1.9 MYA for banana-feeding taxa, inconsistent with rapid speciation.
Finally, in Chapter 5, I explored intraspecies gene flow in eight species of Hawaiian Omiodes, and found considerable variation among species in terms of population structure (ΦST). Some species showed no evidence of isolation related to islands, and others showed nearly complete isolation. Gene flow was lowest in species that were rare, host-specific, and limited to small historical ranges. It is likely that speciation in Omiodes has occurred primarily allopatrically, but host specificity may play a role by selecting against against long-distance dispersal.
|Description:||Ph.D. University of Hawaii at Manoa 2011.|
Includes bibliographical references.
|Appears in Collections:||Ph.D. - Entomology|
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