Innovations in Collaborative Environments and Learning Technologies

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    Virtual Reality Applications for Higher Educations: A Market Analysis
    ( 2021-01-05) Radianti, Jaziar ; Majchrzak, Tim A. ; Fromm, Jennifer ; Stieglitz, Stefan ; Vom Brocke, Jan
    Benefits and applications of virtual reality (VR) in higher education have seen much interest both from research and industry. While several immersive VR applications for higher education have been described, a structured analysis of such applications on the market does not exist. We use design elements from research for applying VR in higher education to analyze available VR apps. The analyzed VR applications were acquired from pertinent online stores to capture the market’s state. We analyze the current picture of the available apps by categorizing them based on design elements and learning content. The aims are to map what types of apps are available, to study what expected types cannot (yet) be found, to compare the current state of the literature and the educational VR app market, as well as to scrutinize the most frequently used design elements for VR in education.
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    Using Eye-Tracking Data to Compare Differences in Code Comprehension and Code Perceptions between Expert and Novice Programmers
    ( 2021-01-05) Jessup, Sarah ; Willis, Sasha M. ; Alarcon, Gene ; Lee, Michael
    Previous research has examined how eye-tracking metrics can serve as a proxy for directly measuring the amount of cognitive effort and processing required for comprehending computer code. We conducted a pilot study comprising expert (n = 10) and novice (n = 10) computer programmers to examine group differences in code comprehension abilities and perceptions. Programmers were asked to read two pieces of computer code, rate the code on various attributes, and then describe what the code does. Results indicate that experts and novices significantly differ in terms of their fixation counts made during the task, such that experts had more fixations than novices. This was counter to our hypothesis that experts would have fewer fixations than novices. We found no evidence that experts and novices differed in their average fixation durations, trustworthiness and performance perceptions, or willingness to reuse the code.
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    The Virtual Tutor: Tasks for conversational agents in Online Collaborative Learning Environments
    ( 2021-01-05) Gabriel, Christian ; Hahne, Charlotte ; Zimmermann, Alina ; Lenk, Florian
    Online collaborative learning environments are becoming increasingly popular in higher education. E-tutors need to supervise, guide students and look out for conflicts within the online environment to ensure a successful learning experience. Web-based platforms allow for interactive elements such as conversational agents to disencumber the e-tutor. Repeatable tasks, which do not require a human response, can be automatized by these systems. The aim of this study is to identify and synthesize the tasks an e-tutor has and to investigate the automatisation potential with conversational agents. Using a design science research approach a literature review is conducted, identifying 13 tasks. Subsequently, a matrix is established, contrasting the tasks with requirements for the use of conversational agents. Furthermore, a virtual tutor framework is developed, clarifying the agent type selection, the technical structure and components for a prototype development in an online collaborative learning environment.
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    The Role of Spatial Ability in Learning with Virtual Reality: A Literature Review
    ( 2021-01-05) Lin, Yongqian ; Suh, Ayoung
    No research has systematically reviewed the role of spatial ability in virtual reality (VR) learning. This has resulted in inefficiencies in educators’ ability to adopt personalized teaching strategies based on learners’ spatial ability to maximize the effectiveness of VR. Therefore, this study conducted a literature review on spatial ability in VR learning to provide researchers and educators with a comprehensive understanding of how spatial ability affects VR learning. After searching Scopus with keywords and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the researchers identified 30 relevant research articles for the review. This literature review mainly analyzed research trends, contexts, theories, methodologies, and findings from the identified articles. The contradictory role of spatial ability in VR learning was also summarized. Based on the literature analysis, this study identified research gaps and indicated directions for future research.
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    The omitted variable: could DuoTest enable a new way to assess the link between individual and team performance in team-based learning?
    ( 2021-01-05) Bonazzi, Riccardo ; Rouiller, Yviane
    Imagine a class of students being allowed to do their final exam twice in a row: the first time, participants do their exam individually and with closed books (Exa01); the second time, they solve the same exam in groups and with open books (Exa02). If you think that all students will get a better grade in the second exam, you would be surprised by the results. This article is part of an ongoing project to develop a method for team-based learning named Testudo. We present an assessment technique called DuoTest, which uses a mixed model to (a) analyze data from individual and group exams and (b) determine the positive (or negative) effect of each team over the individual performances. Empirical results collected from 70 students show that individual exams are a weak predictor of the group scores, whereas fixed effects associated to each team are a better predictor of Exa02.
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    Experiential Learning Through a Week Long Information Systems Case Study
    ( 2021-01-05) Corbin, Madison ; Leavitt, Cherileigh ; Kettles, Degan ; Anderson, Greg
    An experiential learning model known as INTEX (INTegrative EXercise) was implemented by the Information Systems department at a private western university. The purpose was to facilitate a team-based holistic learning experience in both content and application to supply a means of measuring student performance and further program development. In this paper, we explain how INTEX presents an adoptable experiential learning model, how INTEX is administered, and the extent to which INTEX fulfills each of its seven objectives based on student, alumni, and faculty feedback. Our main findings are: INTEX provides a compelling real-world case simulation, gives students an invaluable teamwork experience, facilitates the development of both technical and soft presentation skills, and furnishes a reference point for students to utilize in their careers. It also serves as a means of measuring program performance used to further IS curriculum development.
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    Evolution of Serious Games to Support Lifelong Learning and Decision Making: Design and Implementation of a Financial Literacy Game
    ( 2021-01-05) Rasco , Aldrich ; Chan, Johnny ; Peko, Gabrielle ; Sundaram, David
    Considering the economic changes of recent time, financial literacy arises as a focal point of interest. COVID-19, coupled with the culmination of other societal issues, underlines the importance of understanding sensible personal finance. Nationwide lockdown and other economic constraints put us in immobilised positions to confide in safe and accessible entertainment havens such as games. Herein lies an interesting research opportunity to progress personal wellbeing and capability despite the extant issues of recent times. The paper demonstrates the design and implementation of an evolving serious game that supports lifelong learning and decision making relating to personal finance. The example is a useful account of serious games’ evolutionary potential to incrementally support users through lifelong learning. The game’s holistic design incorporates autonomy, motivation, and support structures to ensure that lifelong learning and decision making is effectively managed through an evolving system. The corresponding implementation evidences the sheer potential of serious games.
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    Design and Evaluation of an Adaptive Empathy Learning Tool
    ( 2021-01-05) Wambsganss, Thiemo ; Weber, Florian ; Söllner, Matthias
    Empathy is an elementary skill for daily interactions and for professional communication, agile teamwork and successful leadership and thus elementary for educational curricula. However, educational organizations face difficulties in providing the boundary conditions necessary for their students to develop empathy skills due to the lack of individual support in traditional large-scale and growing distance-learning scenarios. Drawing on cognitive dissonance theory, we propose an adaptive empathy learning tool that helps students develop their ability to react to other people’s observed experiences through individual feedback in large-scale or distance learning scenarios. Based on a design science research project, we propose a set of design principles and instantiate and evaluate them with our prototype Eva in an online experiment with 65 students. The findings suggest that an adaptive empathy learning tool that follows our design principles is a promising approach to individually support students in their ability to react to other people’s observed abilities in traditional learning scenarios.
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    Constructing a Methodology for Developing a Cybersecurity Program
    ( 2021-01-05) Ward, Patrick
    This paper serves to introduce the problem of constructing a methodology to develop a cybersecurity program. The goal of the program is to prepare students graduating from an accredited two-year college for success in cybersecurity careers. Several challenges must be addressed such as program accreditation, workforce development, and DHS/NSA Center of Academic Excellence in Cyber Defense (CAE-CD) designation. All of these serve as inputs in constructing a methodology to develop such a program to meet local industry needs for cyber professionals
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    A Tale of Two Virtual Communities: A comparative analysis of culture and discourse in two online programming communities
    ( 2021-01-05) Sengupta, Subhasree
    Software programming is increasingly becoming a collaborative and community driven effort, with online discussions becoming vital resources for learning and knowledge sharing. This study explores the differences in the discourse patterns of two popular online programming communities and provides insights into the type of community practices and learning outcomes these collectives support and scaffold. A three step content analysis framework is presented that employs a mixture of automated text processing techniques and qualitative methods on a representative sample of 8639 and 6126 contributions from Stack Overflow and r/Askprogramming respectively. Results indicate differences between communities in the scope of topics and the nature of responses provided. While r/Askprogramming has a more community centric, interpersonal approach and provides a space for sharing and supporting needs beyond knowledge sharing and factual learning, Stack Overflow takes a more task focused, knowledge centric approach. These findings suggest key normative structures that regulate patterns of collaboration and deliberation, which may have long term design implications for structuring and sustaining informal learning initiatives that nurture and promote technical skill development and enhancement.