LD&C logo Volume 2, Number 1 (June 2008)
Printer icon PDF version | Metadata
Original wordlist
(Doulos SIL font requried,
UTF-16 encoded)

Notes from the Field

Minangali (Kalinga) Digital Wordlist: Presentation Form

Kenneth S. Olson
SIL International and University of North Dakota

Glenn Machlan
SIL International

Nelson Amangao
Christian and Missionary Alliance Churches of the Philippines (CAMACOP)


This paper presents a 207-item digital wordlist of Minangali, an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines. The wordlist includes orthographic and broad phonetic transcriptions of each word, an English gloss, an individual WAV recording of each item, and metadata for resource discovery. An archival form of the wordlist was deposited into an institutional archive (the SIL Language and Culture Archives) and includes the original WAV digital recording, the original RTF wordlist form, descriptive markup encoding of the wordlist in XML employing Unicode transcription, and the metadata record. The presentation form was then generated directly from the archival form.

1. INTRODUCTION.1 This paper presents a 207-item digital wordlist of core vocabulary in Minangali, a variety of Lower Tanudan Kalinga spoken in the town of Mangali, Kalinga Province, Philippines. Lower Tanudan Kalinga is an Austronesian language (Northern Philippine subgroup) spoken by approximately 11,000 people (ISO 639–3 code: kml, Gordon 2005). This presentation form was generated from an archival form of the data. The procedure we followed for creating both forms is detailed in Simons, Olson, and Frank 2007 and summarized below.

In addition to a description of the primary data in the form of phonetic transcription, we provide a documentation of the data in the form of digital audio recordings (cf. Himmelmann 1998), enabling the reader to verify and critique our transcription. This is important for this particular wordlist because Minangali has some unusual phonological phenomena, including the rare interdental approximant speech sound (to our knowledge, these are the first published recordings of the sound) and word-internal …VCV… sequences in which the intervocalic consonant is the coda of a preceding syllable.

The materials included in this presentation of the data include the following:

  • Wordlist: the present report, containing for each word an English gloss, orthographic and broad phonetic transcriptions, and pertinent notes.
  • Recordings: WAV2 digital recordings of each item, accessible by clicking on the loud speaker icon next to the orthographic form of each word in the list below. Your web browser will attempt to play the recording with the sound program that is set up as the default WAV player on your system. On Windows computers, you can download the file by right-clicking on the icon and selecting “Save Target As…” from the pull-down menu.
  • Metadata: a resource description of the data, useful for resource discovery.

The original wordlist materials included two items: an electronic wordlist form (in RTF format) and an 18.5-minute digital recording in WAV format. The wordlist form that we used presented 207 items, which is an amalgamation of the Swadesh 200 (Swadesh 1952:456–457) and Swadesh 100 (Swadesh 1955:124,133–137) wordlists, with some minor modifications (thouyou sg., yeyou pl., personman (human being), woodsforest, berryfruit, clawfingernail, and rightcorrect). For each item, the form provided a prompt in English and spaces for the transcription of the elicited form in both orthography and broad phonetic script. The third author translated the wordlist into Minangali, with some assistance from the second author. 

The wordlist was recorded on April 17, 2006 in the recording studio at the SIL Center in Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya Province, Philippines. During the recording session, the second author produced the English prompt, and the third author produced the target word twice. The recording was made using a Samson C01U USB studio condenser microphone connected to a notebook computer, using Speech Analyzer v. 2.7 for audio capture.

The third author is a sixty-year-old native speaker of Minangali. He has lived most of his life in Mangali, but he lived in Cebu for three years during his post-secondary education. He also speaks Ilocano, English, Cebuano, and some Tagalog.

The microphone and software allowed for recording at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz and a quantization of 16-bit (i.e., standard audio CD quality). This is sufficient for technical purposes since it covers nearly all acoustic information pertinent to language, but it does not meet the generally-accepted recommended best practice of 96 kHz and 24-bit for archival data (Ladefoged 2003:18, 26; Simons et al. 2007:31; Plichta and Kornbluh 2002; IASA-TC03 2005:8). We recommend that field researchers record primary data at archival-quality rates if possible.

The draft transcription contained fields for five annotations: the item number, an English prompt, an orthographic transcription of the Minangali utterance, a broad phonetic transcription of the Minangali utterance using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA 1999), and additional notes. The draft transcription was revised by the authors, converted to a comma-delimited (CSV) file, and imported into TableTrans v. 1.2 software (Bird et al. 2002), where it was time-aligned to the original audio recording. This annotation was outputted to an XML annotation graph output and transformed into an XML descriptive wordlist format using an XSLT script.

The original electronic wordlist (in RTF format), the original WAV file, the XML descriptive wordlist, and a metadata record constitute the archival form of the wordlist (Machlan and Olson 2008). The metadata record follows the standard set up by the Open Language Archives Community (OLAC, http://www.language-archives.org/OLAC/metadata.html). A copy of the archival materials can be ordered on CD-ROM for a nominal fee from:

SIL Language and Culture Archives
7500 W Camp Wisdom Rd
Dallas, TX 75236 USA
archive_dallas [at] sil [dot] org
(Please replace [at] with "@" and [dot] with ".")

The presentation form of the wordlist was then generated from the archival form. An XSLT script was employed to convert the archival XML descriptive wordlist into an HTML presentation wordlist. Then, TableTrans was used to automatically create individual sound files corresponding to each of the segments identified in the transcription process for use in the presentation form.

The broad phonetic transcription requires a few remarks. First, two adjacent identical consonants represent a long consonant. We write them as two consonants in order to allow for stress to be marked properly on forms such as item 33: abobba [abobprimary stress signba] ‘short’. Second, two adjacent identical vowels represent two distinct vowels occurring in separate syllables, such as in item 20: poos [primary stress signpoos] ‘few’. Third, some words have an unusual pattern in which there is a syllable break after an intervocalic consonant. In such cases we explicitly mark the syllable break with a period, e.g. item 31: dam-ot [dam.primary stress signot] ‘heavy’. In cognates from many other Philippine languages, there is a glottal stop in this position, so it appears that in Minangali the glottal stop has been deleted historically in these cases. Fourth, the phoneme transcribed in the Minangali orthography as <k> is normally realized as a glottal stop [glottal stop] in Minangali. Cognates from many other Philippine languages have a /k/ in this position, so it appears that in Minangali the /k/ has evolved into /glottal stop/. However, in item 68 it is a [k] that is produced: sakkud [primary stress signsakkud] ‘horn’. It is not certain that this word is a borrowing. Fifth, the eth with lowering sign [lowered voiced dental fricative] represents the interdental approximant, a rare speech sound found in about a dozen Philippine languages, including Kagayanen, Karaga Mandaya, Kalagan, Southern Catanduanes Bicolano, and several varieties of Kalinga (Olson and Mielke 2007). 


No. English   Play Orthography Phonetic Notes
1 I Play recording sakon [primary stress signsaglottal stopon]  
2 you sing.; thou Play recording sika [primary stress signsiglottal stopa]  
3 he Play recording siya [siprimary stress signja]  
4 we Play recording ditaku [ditaprimary stress signglottal stopu] inclusive
    Play recording dikani [diglottal stopaprimary stress signni] exclusive
5 you pl. Play recording dikayu [diglottal stopaprimary stress signju]  
6 they Play recording dida [diprimary stress signda]  
7 this Play recording anna [primary stress signanna]  
8 that Play recording andi [primary stress signandi]  
9 here Play recording sina [siprimary stress signna]  
10 there Play recording sidi [siprimary stress signdi]  
11 who Play recording ngai [velar nasalai]  
12 what Play recording ngai [velar nasalai]  
13 where Play recording dinu [diprimary stress signnu]  
14 when Play recording kamaan [glottal stopamaprimary stress signan]  
15 how Play recording inon [iprimary stress signnon]  
16 not Play recording adipun [adiprimary stress signpun] negates verb or adjective
    Play recording dakampun [daprimary stress signglottal stopampun] negates noun
17 all Play recording amin [primary stress signamin]  
    Play recording losan [loprimary stress signsan]  
18 many Play recording adu [aprimary stress signdu]  
19 some Play recording udum [uprimary stress signdum]  
20 few Play recording akit [aprimary stress signglottal stopit]  
    Play recording poos [primary stress signpoos]  
21 other Play recording udum [uprimary stress signdum]  
22 one Play recording ossaan [osprimary stress signsaan]  
    Play recording osa [oprimary stress signsa] if counting
23 two Play recording duwa [duprimary stress signwa]  
24 three Play recording tulu [tuprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativeu]  
25 four Play recording opat [oprimary stress signpat]  
26 five Play recording lima [liprimary stress signma]  
27 big Play recording dakol [daprimary stress signglottal stopolowered voiced dental fricative]  
28 long Play recording andu [primary stress signandu]  
29 wide Play recording alwa [primary stress signalowered voiced dental fricativewa]  
30 thick Play recording kopal [glottal stopoprimary stress signpalowered voiced dental fricative]  
31 heavy Play recording dagson [dagprimary stress signson]  
    Play recording dam-ot [dam.primary stress signot]  
32 small Play recording ban-og [ban.primary stress signog]  
33 short Play recording abobba [abobprimary stress signba] length
    Play recording ansokba [anprimary stress signsoglottal stopba] stature; morphology: an-sokba
34 narrow Play recording ansulpit [anprimary stress signsulowered voiced dental fricativepit] morphology: an-sulpit
35 thin Play recording ayyapit [ajprimary stress signjapit] thin; morphology: an-yapit
    Play recording dagele [dageprimary stress signle] skinny
36 woman Play recording bubai [bubaprimary stress signi]  
37 man (adult male) Play recording lalaki [laprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativeaglottal stopi]  
38 man (human being) Play recording tagu [primary stress signtagu]  
39 child (a youth) Play recording abeng [aprimary stress signbevelar nasal]  
40 wife Play recording asawa’e bubai [aprimary stress signsawae bubaprimary stress signi] literally 'female spouse'; morphology: asawa-e bubai; mispronunciation on second utterance
41 husband Play recording asawa’e lalaki [aprimary stress signsawae laprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativeaglottal stopi] literally 'male spouse'; morphology: asawa-e lalaki; hesitation on second utterance
42 mother Play recording ina [iprimary stress signna]  
43 father Play recording ama [aprimary stress signma]  
44 animal Play recording ayam [primary stress signajam]  
45 fish Play recording ugadiw [ugaprimary stress signdiw]  
46 bird Play recording sissiwit [sissiprimary stress signwit]  
47 dog Play recording asu [primary stress signasu]  
48 louse Play recording kutu [primary stress signglottal stoputu]  
49 snake Play recording ulog [primary stress signulowered voiced dental fricativeog]  
50 worm Play recording batol [baprimary stress signtolowered voiced dental fricative]  
51 tree Play recording kayu [primary stress signglottal stopaju]  
52 forest Play recording ginubat [giprimary stress signnubat]  
53 stick (of wood) Play recording lasang [laprimary stress signsavelar nasal]  
    Play recording tuvelar nasalu [tuprimary stress signvelar nasalu] piece of firewood
54 fruit Play recording buvelar nasala [buprimary stress signvelar nasala]  
55 seed Play recording bukol [buprimary stress signglottal stopolowered voiced dental fricative]  
56 leaf Play recording tubu [primary stress signtubu]  
57 root Play recording lamut [laprimary stress signmut]  
58 bark (of tree) Play recording uppak [primary stress signuppaglottal stop]  
59 flower Play recording tabbak [primary stress signtabbaglottal stop]  
60 grass Play recording lumun [luprimary stress signmun]  
61 rope Play recording tali [taprimary stress signli] thick rope
    Play recording kiddong [primary stress signglottal stopiddovelar nasal] generic rope
62 skin (of a person) Play recording kublit [primary stress signglottal stopublit]  
63 meat (as in flesh) Play recording laman [laprimary stress signman]  
64 blood Play recording dala [daprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativea]  
65 bone Play recording tung-al [primary stress signtuvelar nasal.alowered voiced dental fricative]  
66 fat (n.) Play recording taba [taprimary stress signba]  
67 egg Play recording iplug [primary stress signiplug]  
68 horn Play recording sakkud [primary stress signsakkud] possibly a loan
69 tail Play recording ipus [primary stress signipus]  
70 feather Play recording dutdut [dutprimary stress signdut]  
71 hair Play recording buuk [buprimary stress signuglottal stop]  
72 head Play recording ulu [primary stress signulowered voiced dental fricativeu]  
73 ear Play recording inga [primary stress signivelar nasala]  
74 eye Play recording ata [aprimary stress signta]  
75 nose Play recording ongol [oprimary stress signvelar nasalolowered voiced dental fricative]  
76 mouth Play recording sungad [primary stress signsuvelar nasalad]  
77 tooth (rather not molar) Play recording baba [baprimary stress signba]  
78 tongue Play recording dela [deprimary stress signla]  
79 fingernail Play recording kukkulung [primary stress signglottal stopuglottal stopglottal stopulowered voiced dental fricativeuvelar nasal]  
80 foot Play recording dapan [daprimary stress signpan] bottom of foot
81 leg Play recording uki [glottal stopuprimary stress signglottal stopi] includes foot
82 knee Play recording powog [primary stress signpowog]  
83 hand Play recording ima [primary stress signima] includes arm
84 wing Play recording payak [paprimary stress signjaglottal stop]  
85 belly Play recording buwang [buprimary stress signwavelar nasal]  
86 guts Play recording botak [boprimary stress signtaglottal stop]  
87 neck Play recording bagang [baprimary stress signgavelar nasal]  
88 back Play recording odog [oprimary stress signdog]  
89 breast Play recording balukung [baprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativeuglottal stopuvelar nasal]  
90 heart Play recording pusu [primary stress signpusu]  
91 liver Play recording agtoy [primary stress signagtoj]  
92 drink Play recording uminum [umiprimary stress signnum] morphology: um-inum
93 eat Play recording angan [aprimary stress signvelar nasalan] morphology: aN-kan
94 bite Play recording kumtob [primary stress signglottal stopumtob] morphology: um-kotob
95 suck Play recording supsupan [supprimary stress signsupan] morphology: supsup-an
96 spit Play recording tumuppa [tuprimary stress signmuppa] morphology: um-tuppa
97 vomit Play recording an-uta [an.primary stress signuta] morphology: an-uta
98 blow (as wind) Play recording bumibbid [buprimary stress signmibbid] morphology: um-bibbid
99 breathe Play recording umangos [uprimary stress signmavelar nasalos] morphology: um-angos
100 laugh Play recording mayokyok [maprimary stress signjoglottal stopjoglottal stop] morphology: ma-yokyok
101 see Play recording ilan [iprimary stress signlan]  
102 hear Play recording dongol [doprimary stress signvelar nasalolowered voiced dental fricative]  
103 know (a fact) Play recording igammu [igamprimary stress signmu]  
104 think Play recording somsomok [somsoprimary stress signmoglottal stop]  
105 smell (sense odor) Play recording sungsungon [suvelar nasalprimary stress signsuvelar nasalon] morphology: sungsung-on
106 fear Play recording makimut [maglottal stopiprimary stress signmut] morphology: ma-kimut
107 sleep Play recording nasuyop [naprimary stress signsujop] morphology: na-suyop
108 live Play recording matagu [maprimary stress signtagu] morphology: ma-tagu
109 die Play recording natoy [naprimary stress signtoj] morphology: na-toy
110 kill Play recording gongaton [govelar nasalaprimary stress signton] morphology: gongat-on
111 fight Play recording ampatoy [ampaprimary stress signtoj] morphology: an-pa-toy
112 hunt (transitive) Play recording anganup [avelar nasalaprimary stress signnup] morphology: aN-anup
113 hit Play recording bikungon [biglottal stopuprimary stress signvelar nasalon] morphology: bikung-on
114 cut Play recording sugaton [sugaprimary stress signton] morphology: sugat-on
115 split Play recording bisakon [biprimary stress signsaglottal stopon] morphology: bisak-on
116 stab (or stick) Play recording duy-ukon [duj.primary stress signuglottal stopon] morphology: duy-uk-on
117 scratch (an itch) Play recording gug-u [gug.primary stress signu]  
118 dig Play recording amboka [amboprimary stress signglottal stopa] morphology: an-boka
119 swim Play recording ankiyat [anglottal stopiprimary stress signjat] morphology: an-kiyat
120 fly (v.) Play recording tumayap [tuprimary stress signmajap] morphology: um-tayap
121 walk Play recording anaddalan [asecondary stress signnaddaprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativean] morphology: aN-taddalan
122 come Play recording umali [uprimary stress signmali] morphology: um-ali
123 lie (as on one’s side) Play recording umbog [primary stress signumbog] morphology: um-obog
124 sit Play recording tumukdu [tuprimary stress signmuglottal stopdu] morphology: um-tukdu
125 stand Play recording sumikad [suprimary stress signmiglottal stopad] morphology: um-sikad
126 turn (change direction) Play recording amballigus [amsecondary stress signballiprimary stress signgus] morphology: an-balligus
127 fall (as in drop) Play recording naottag [naprimary stress signottag] morphology: na-ottag
128 give Play recording itton [primary stress signitton] morphology: itod-on
129 hold (in one’s hand) Play recording onnan [primary stress signonnan] morphology: odon-an
130 squeeze Play recording posposon [pospoprimary stress signson] morphology: pospos-on
131 rub Play recording apuwap [aprimary stress signpuwap]  
132 wash Play recording kiwas [glottal stopiprimary stress signwas]  
133 wipe Play recording punas [primary stress signpunas]  
134 pull Play recording iyagwod [iprimary stress signjagwod] morphology: i-agwod
135 push Play recording itukyud [iprimary stress signtuglottal stopjud] morphology: i-tukyud
136 throw Play recording iballu [ibalprimary stress signlu] morphology: i-ballu
137 tie Play recording itakod [itaprimary stress signglottal stopod] morphology: i-takod
138 sew Play recording dait [primary stress signdait]  
139 count Play recording ambelang [ambeprimary stress signlavelar nasal] morphology: an-belang
140 say Play recording ibaga [ibaprimary stress signga] morphology: i-baga
141 sing Play recording ankanta [anprimary stress signglottal stopanta] morphology: an-kanta
142 play Play recording an-ay-ayam [an.aj.primary stress signajam] morphology: an-ayayam
143 float Play recording anappak [aprimary stress signnappaglottal stop] morphology: aN-tappak
144 flow Play recording an-ayus [an.primary stress signajus] morphology: an-ayus
145 freeze Play recording bumatu [bumaprimary stress signtu] morphology: um-batu
146 swell Play recording lumtog [primary stress signlumtog] morphology: um-lotog
147 sun Play recording init [primary stress signinit]  
148 moon Play recording solag [soprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativeag]  
149 star Play recording bituwon [biprimary stress signtuwon]  
150 water Play recording danum [daprimary stress signnum]  
151 rain Play recording udan [uprimary stress signdan]  
152 river Play recording tawwang [primary stress signtawwavelar nasal]  
153 lake Play recording baybay [bajprimary stress signbaj]  
154 sea (as in ocean) Play recording baybay [bajprimary stress signbaj]  
155 salt Play recording asin [aprimary stress signsin]  
156 stone Play recording batu [baprimary stress signtu]  
157 sand Play recording gallis [galprimary stress signlis]  
158 dust Play recording tapuk [primary stress signtapuglottal stop] on trail
    Play recording gabu [gaprimary stress signbu] in yard
159 earth (as in soil) Play recording luta [primary stress signluta]  
160 cloud Play recording libuu [libuprimary stress signu]  
161 fog Play recording nopnop [primary stress signnopnop]  
162 sky Play recording langit [primary stress signlavelar nasalit]  
163 wind (as in breeze) Play recording bibbid [bibprimary stress signbid]  
164 snow Play recording dalalu [daprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativealowered voiced dental fricativeu]  
165 ice Play recording dalalu [daprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativealowered voiced dental fricativeu]  
166 smoke Play recording asok [aprimary stress signsoglottal stop]  
167 fire Play recording apuy [aprimary stress signpuj]  
168 ashes Play recording dapol [daprimary stress signpolowered voiced dental fricative]  
169 burn Play recording sogob [soprimary stress signgob] root form
170 road Play recording kalsa [primary stress signglottal stopalowered voiced dental fricativesa]  
171 mountain Play recording beleg [beprimary stress signleg]  
172 red Play recording dilaag [diprimary stress signlaag]  
173 green Play recording lingsi [primary stress signlivelar nasalsi]  
174 yellow Play recording ngela [velar nasaleprimary stress signla]  
175 white Play recording itak [primary stress signitaglottal stop]  
176 black Play recording ngitit [primary stress signvelar nasalitit]  
177 night Play recording labi [laprimary stress signbi]  
178 day (daytime) Play recording algaw [primary stress signalowered voiced dental fricativegaw]  
179 year Play recording tawon [taprimary stress signwon]  
180 warm (as in weather) Play recording an-attub [an.primary stress signattub] morphology: an-attub
181 cold (as in weather) Play recording antungnin [anprimary stress signtuvelar nasalnin] morphology: an-tungnin
182 full Play recording napnu [napprimary stress signnu]  
183 new Play recording kak-ala [glottal stopaglottal stop.primary stress signalowered voiced dental fricativea]  
184 old Play recording dadaan [dadaprimary stress signan]  
185 good Play recording ambalu [ambaprimary stress signlowered voiced dental fricativeu] morphology: an-balu
186 bad Play recording lawweng [primary stress signlawwevelar nasal]  
187 rotten (as a log) Play recording nalpos [primary stress signnalowered voiced dental fricativepos] morphology: na-lopos
188 dirty Play recording kaissaw [glottal stopaisprimary stress signsaw]  
189 straight Play recording nanggodong [navelar nasalgoprimary stress signdovelar nasal] morphology: nan-godong
190 round Play recording natibukol [nasecondary stress signtibuprimary stress signglottal stopolowered voiced dental fricative] morphology: na(ti)-bukol
191 sharp (as a knife) Play recording antadom [antaprimary stress signdom] morphology: an-tadom
192 dull (as a knife) Play recording bungdol [buvelar nasalprimary stress signdolowered voiced dental fricative]  
193 smooth Play recording an-imnas [an.primary stress signimnas] morphology: an-imnas
194 wet Play recording ambabasa [ambabaprimary stress signsa] morphology: an-CV-basa
195 dry (adjective) Play recording ammamaga [ammamaprimary stress signga] morphology: an-CV-maga
196 correct (right) Play recording ustu [primary stress signustu]  
197 near Play recording adani [adaprimary stress signni]  
198 far Play recording adayu [adaprimary stress signju]  
199 right (side) Play recording dawinan [dawiprimary stress signnan]  
200 left (side) Play recording dawigi [dawiprimary stress signgi]  
201 at Play recording ad [ad] employed with location words
    Play recording atte [primary stress signatte]  
202 in Play recording ad [ad] employed with location words
    Play recording atte [primary stress signatte]  
203 with (accompanying) Play recording     no entry
204 and Play recording kan [glottal stopan]  
    Play recording kad [glottal stopad]  
    Play recording wok [woglottal stop]  
    Play recording ya [ja]  
205 if Play recording nu [nu]  
206 because Play recording te [te]  
207 name Play recording ngadan [primary stress signvelar nasaladan]  
169 burn (intransitive) Play recording nasgob [nasprimary stress signgob] passive form ('to be burned'); morphology: na-sogob


Bird, Steven, Kazuaki Maeda, Xiaoyi Ma, Haejoong Lee, Beth Randall, and Salim Zayat. 2002. TableTrans, MultiTrans, InterTrans and TreeTrans: Diverse tools built on the Annotation Graph Toolkit. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Paris: European Language Resources Association. http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0204006.

Gordon, Raymond G., ed. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 15th edition. Dallas, TX: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com.

Himmelmann, Nikolaus. 1998. Documentary and descriptive linguistics. Linguistics 36:161–195.

IASA-TC03. 2005. The safeguarding of the audio heritage: Ethics, principles and preservation strategy, version 3. http://www.iasa-web.org/IASA_TC03/TC03_English.pdf.

International Phonetic Association. 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ladefoged, Peter. 2003. Phonetic data analysis: An introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Oxford: Blackwell.

Machlan, Glenn, and Kenneth S. Olson. 2008. Minangali (Kalinga) digital wordlist: Archival form. SIL-LCA-50319. SIL Language and Culture Archives, Dallas, TX.

Olson, Kenneth S., and Jeff Mielke. 2007. Articulation of the Kagayanen interdental approximant: An ultrasound study. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America annual meeting, January 2007, in Anaheim, CA.

Plichta, Bartek, and Mark Kornbluh. 2002. Digitizing speech recordings for archival purposes. http://www.historicalvoices.org/papers/audio_digitization.pdf.

Simons, Gary F., Kenneth S. Olson, and Paul Frank. 2007. Ngbugu digital wordlist: A test case for best practices in archiving and presenting language documentation. Linguistic Discovery 5(1):28–39. http://journals.dartmouth.edu/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Journals.woa/2/xmlpage/1/article/314.

Swadesh, Morris. 1952. Lexico-statistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts: With special reference to North American Indians and Eskimos. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 96(4):452–463.

Swadesh, Morris. 1955. Towards greater accuracy in lexiostatistic dating. International Journal of American Linguistics 21:121–137.

Kenneth S. Olson
ken_olson [at] sil [dot] org

Glenn Machlan
glenn_machlan [at] sil [dot] org

(Please replace [at] with "@" and [dot] with ".")

back to top

Creative Commons logo Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike License