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Title: A Review of the Association of Ants with Mealybug Wilt Disease of Pineapple 
Author: Jahn, Gary C.; Beardsley, John W.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Hector
Date: 2003-11
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Jahn GC, Beardsley JW, Gonzalez-Hernandez H. 2003. A review of the association of ants with mealybug wilt disease of pineapple. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 36:9-28.
Abstract: The literature concerning the association between ants and the mealybugs causing pineapple wilt disease is surveyed. A great deal of data on this subject has been published in the relatively obscure technical papers and reports of the defunct Pineapple Research Institute of Hawaii. This review article is an attempt to bring this information to a broader audience and examine it in the context of related research reported in mainstream publications to create a meaningful synthesis. Two species of mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and D. neobrevipes Beardsley, are associated with wilt disease of pineapple under field conditions. A third species, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) induces wilt symptoms in laboratory experiments, but not under field conditions. The symptoms of wilt disease and the geographic distribution of the pineapple mealybug complex are described. The history of the discovery of the disease, the disease etiology, the association of mealybugs with wilt, and the mutualism between ants and mealybugs on pineapple are discussed in detail. At least 28 different species of ants tend mealybugs on pineapples. Pheidole and Solenopsis are the ant genera most commonly associated with pineapple mealybugs throughout the world. The ants and natural enemies associated with mealybugs on pineapple are reviewed as part of a discussion of the role of ants in promoting mealybug infestations. Finally, management techniques for wilt, including ant and mealybug control, are reviewed.
ISSN: 0073-134X
Keywords: Dysmicoccus brevipes, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Pseudococcus longispinus, Pineapple Research Institute, Hawaii, pineapples, Ananas comosus, Pheidole, Solenopsis, Formicidae, mutualism, insect vectors, vascular wilt, disease control, literature reviews

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