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Title: WRRCTR No.20 Migration of Bacteriophage T4 in Percolating Water through Selected Oahu Soils 
Author: Tanimoto, Richard M.; Burbank, Nathan C Jr.; Young, Reginald H.F.; Lau, L. Stephen
Date: 1968-06
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: Tanimoto RM, Burbank NC, Young RHF, Lau LS. 1968. Migration of bacteriophage T4 in percolating water through selected Oahu soils. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 20.
Abstract: A laboratory study was made of the ability of three Oahu soils, Wahiawa, Lahaina, (both Low Humic Latosols), and Tantalus cinder (of the ashy cindery isothermic family of Typic Dystrandepts) to remove the coliphage T4Br(II) mutant (a vegetative virus) from percolating waters. The soils were selected on the basis of their occurrence on the island of Oahu in areas where percolating water may enter directly and in quantity into the ground-water body that provides the principal portion of the island's domestic water supply. On Oahu, 95 percent of the total agricultural product is cultivated in Low Humic Latosols. Two of the soils proved to be effective in retaining the T4Br(II) mutant virus but only at thicknesses greater than 2.5 inches. The Wahiawa and Lahaina soils were effective in the removal or adsorption of the coliphage T4 from percolating waters at the applied concentration of 2.5 x 10^6 per ml of feed solution through soil thicknesses of 6 inches and 2.5 inches. Adsorption at these thicknesses was 100 percent. Breakthrough of the viruses occurred in both Wahiawa and Lahaina soils at soil thickness of 1.5 inches at applied concentration of 1.5 x 10^6 per ml of feed solution. The breakthrough began slowly, but increased
rapidly with time and the rate of breakthrough varied with the soil. A
higher rate was observed for Lahaina soil during the first two days of sampling. The Tantalus cinder proved ineffective in withholding the viruses at the applied concentration of 1.5 x 10^6 per ml of feed solution. Breakthrough of concentrations of 10^5 of the phage (plaques) were recorded
through soil thicknesses of 15, 12, and 6 inches.
Series/Report No.: WRRC Technical Report
Description: U.S. Department of the Interior Grant/Contract No. 14-01-0001-1079; A-001-HI
Pages/Duration: vi + 45 pages
LC Subject Headings: Bacteriophage T4
Soil percolation -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Soils -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Groundwater -- Pollution -- Hawaii -- Oahu.

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