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|Title:||History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: freshwater birds: Hawaiian Gallinule ´Alae-´ula|
|Authors:||Banko, Winston E.|
Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis
|LC Subject Headings:||Bird populations -- Hawaii.|
Endemic birds -- Hawaii -- History.
Water birds -- Hawaii.
|Publisher:||Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany|
|Citation:||Banko WE. 1987. History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: freshwater birds: Hawaiian Gallinule ´Alae-´ula. Honolulu (HI): Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany. CPSU/UH Avian History Report, 12a.|
|Series/Report no.:||Avian History Report|
|Abstract:||Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis is a medium sized slate-grey water bird (Rallidae) with a red bill and frontal shield. Currently resident only on Kaua´i and O´ahu, this race existed historically on Moloka´i, Maui, and Hawai´i. Exhaustive search of literature and government reports uncovered some 2,756 observational notes, collection records, census reports, and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1779 to 1983. Data are individually numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced and systematically reviewed. Abundant evidence shows that ´Alae-´ula were common and widely distributed in swamps and ponds throughout the major islands in the 18901s. By 1903, population decline had been noted in areas where they had been formerly abundant. The last record of the occurrence of this species on the island of Hawaiti was in 1898, on Maui in 1900, and on Moloka´i in 1973. On O´ahu, comprehensive surveys of over 90 water bird habitats in the 1970's and early 1980% found substantial numbers of ´Alae-´ula only in the lotus and taro fields of Haleiwa where a maximum number of 118 were counted in 1979, and only a few in a dozen or so other habitats. On Kaua´i, systematic surveys of some 140 water birds habitats in the 1970’s and early 1980’s recorded only 50-75 ´Alae-´ula in the Hanalei area, a dozen or so in two other areas, and 2 or 3 in 12-15 lesser populated habitats. Total population of ´Alae-´ula Statewide was estimated at 750 in 1982, the majority obviously missed in semi-annual censuses. In view of its long uninterrupted decline, and lack of substantive conservation measures, it is concluded that this species will continue to slowly depopulate for an indefinite period.|
|Description:||Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.|
|Sponsor:||Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; National Park Service Contract No. CX 8000 8 0012|
|Appears in Collections:||The Avian History Reports|
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