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Title: Myrica faya: review of the biology, ecology, distribution, and control, including an annotated bibliography 
Author: Lutzow-Felling, Candace J.; Gardner, Donald E.; Markin, George P.; Smith, Clifford W.
Date: 1995-04
Publisher: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany
Citation: Lutzow-Felling CJ, Gardner DE, Markin GP, Smith CW. 1995. Myrica faya: review of the biology, ecology, distribution, and control, including an annotated bibliography. Honolulu (HI): Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany. PCSU Technical Report, 94.
Abstract: The family Myricaceae consists of three or four genera, depending on the classification system followed, of which the largest is Myrica with 37-52 species. Members of the genus are typically evergreen shrubs or small trees. The high degree of floral and foliar uniformity within the genus has resulted in confusion and disagreement as to species level classification, and has produced a large number of synonyms. Myrica is widely distributed primarily in tropical or subtropical regions of the world, but several species also occur in northern and southern temperate habitats. The greatest concentration of species appears to be in South Africa. Chevalier's Monographie des Myricales, published in 190 1, remains the definitive work on the taxonomy of the genus, but is out of date in many respects and in need of revision. No members of the genus are themselves of significant economic value, but several species have received disproportionate research attention because of their anatomically and morphologically unusual floral development and structure, and the ability of Myrica spp. to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiotic association with the Actinomycete Frankia. In Hawai'i, Myrica faya (fayatree) has received considerable attention because of its ability to invade and significantly alter native habitats. It is native to the northern islands of Macaronesia, the Azores, Madeira, and the Canaries in the north Atlantic ocean. It was probably introduced to Hawai'i by Portuguese immigrants from the Azores or Madeira during the period 1876-1886, although there are no apparent ethnobotanical uses that would readily account for such introduction. In Hawai'i, research has concentrated on two general aspects: the ability of fayatree to invade native habitats and to permanently alter the nutrient status of volcanic soils, which are typically deficient in nitrogen, through its nitrogen-fixing ability, potentially encouraging further invasion by other alien species; and the control of fayatree through
mechanical, chemical, or biological approaches. Mechanical removal of fayatree is effective on a limited scale, such as in the Special Ecological Areas of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, but this approach is labor intensive and not practical on a wider scale. Herbicides, such as imazapyr,
were shown to be effective when applied to cut stumps, but are expensive and likewise require intensive labor if applied on a wide scale. Investigations of the native habitats of fayatree have led to the identification of insects and pathogenic organisms that may assist in the biocontrol of fayatree in Hawai'i. Some of these organisms have been introduced into quarantine in Hawai'i for testing. To date, two insects, both moths, have been released, Strepsicrates smithiana in 1955, and a second, identified at the time as Phyllonorycter myricae, in 1991. These have not effected control, but observations of P. myricae are still in progress. Although unrecognized until recently, locally occurring disease organisms, such as the fungus Botrytis cinerea may also be limiting fayatree.
Series/Report No.: Technical Report
Description: Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.
Sponsorship: National Park Service Cooperative Agreement CA 8037 2 0001
Keywords: Myrica faya
LC Subject Headings: Invasive plants -- Hawaii.
Morella faya -- Bibliography.
Morella faya -- Control -- Hawaii.
Morella faya.

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