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Title: Preliminary survey of feral ungulate and alien and rare plant occurrence on Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge 
Author: Stone, Charles P; Higashino, Paul K; Cuddihy, Linda W; Anderson, Stephen J
Date: 1991-10
Publisher: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany
Citation: Stone CP, Higashino PK, Cuddihy LW, Anderson SJ. 1991. Preliminary survey of feral ungulate and alien and rare plant occurrence on Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. Honolulu (HI): Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany. PCSU Technical Report, 81.
Abstract: Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge on Hawai'i Island was surveyed for alien plant, feral pig (Sus scrofa), and cattle (Bos taurus) distribution and abundance in April and June of 1987. Fourteen transects were established from high to low elevations (1,200 to 2,200 m or 3,900 to 7,200 ft), and 2,293, 5 x 20-m plots (transect intervals) were sampled. Six permanent 20 x 20 m vegetation plots were established, three in heavily grazed areas and three in less intensely grazed areas. Results were primarily analyzed according to six major vegetative types, which represented 30 detailed vegetation types. Ungulate and cattle sign were significantly related to vegetation types. Six of 68 alien plants encountered on transects were similarly analyzed and found to be associated with certain communities more than others. Alien plant species considered special threats included sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), meadow ricegrass (Microlaena stipoides), kikuyugrass (Pennisetum clandestinum), blackberry (Rubus penetrans), banana poka (Passiflora mollissima), and gorse (Ulex europaeus). Some rare plants were also encountered in the survey, and readily recognized large game birds and raptors were also tabulated. Management recommendations are provided, together with protocols for future monitoring, lists of plants encountered (rare or previously reported), and data from the six permanent plots established for long-term monitoring.
Series/Report No.: Technical Report
81
Description: Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.
Sponsorship: National Park Service Contract No. CA 8015 2 0001
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/7119
LC Subject Headings: Animal-plant relationships -- Hawaii --Hawaii Island.
Feral livestock -- Hawaii -- Hawaii Island.
Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (Hawaii)
Plant communities -- Hawaii -- Hawaii Island.
Plant introduction -- Hawaii -- Hawaii Island.
Rare plants -- Hawaii -- Hawaii Island.

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