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Title: Biology and Life Cycle of Siganus vermiculatus (Siganidae, Pisces) 
Author: Gundermann, N.; Popper, D.M.; Lichatowich, T.
Date: 1983-04
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Gundermann N, Popper DM, Lichatowich T. 1983. Biology and life cycle of Siganus vermiculatus (Siganidae, Pisces). Pac Sci 37(2): 165-180.
Abstract: The herbivorou s fish Siganus vermiculatus (Valenciennes)
(Siganidae; Pisces), a mangrove swamp dweller, was studied in the field and in
captivity in Fiji. The fish has a lunar spawning cycle, benthic sticky eggs, and
pelagic larvae. Metamorphosis occurs between 23 and 27 days after hatching.
The fry live in small schools in brackish or fresh water among mangrove roots.
The young and adults are found mainly in shallow, murky water of mangrove
swamps where they move in and out with the tides . The adults are sometimes seen
in clear water near coral reefs or over sandy bottoms. Feeding takes place during
the day and at night and consists mainly of grazing on algae and mangrove roots.
A tolerance of extreme fluctuations in physicochemical parameters (temperature
19 to 38°C; salinity 2 to 55 ppt; dissolved oxygen 1.2ppm; pH 6.2 to 8.4) permits
the species to live in mangrove swamps.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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