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Title: A Morphological and Mineralogical Study of the Gray Hydromorphic Soils of the Hawaiian Islands! 
Author: Hussain, M.S.; Swindale, L.D.
Date: 1970-10
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Hussain MS, Swindale LD. 1970. A morphological and mineralogical study of the gray hydromorphic soils of the Hawaiian Islands. Pac Sci 24(4): 543-553.
Abstract: Gray hydromorphic soils are imperfectly to poorly drained soils that
occur on the coastal fringes of the Hawaiian Islands on surfaces of Pleistocene to
Recent age. Mottling is characteristic of the soils, and gley horizons occur in the
more hydromorphic soils in the group . As the soils become hydromorphic, soil color
values increase and structures deteriorate.
Halloysite is the dominant clay mineral in the less hydromorphic soils and montmorillonite
is dominant in the more hydromorphic soils of the group . The montmorillonite
is iron-rich and in one soil has the formula (XO.74Ko.1l) (Si7.52Al0.48)^IV
(Al1.85Fe1.60^3+MgO.35Ti0. l0 )^VI O20(OH)4. Hydrated halloysite occurs in all the soils
studied, but it is most abundant in the more hydromorphic soils. Although the soils
are derived from different alluvial materials, the trend of increasing montmorillonite
and increasing hydrated halloysite with increasing hydromorphism is clearly related
to the pedogenic processes operating in the soils. Similar mineralogical trends are
found with increasing depth in each soil.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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