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Title: Speciation and Evolution of Marine Fishes Studied by the Electrophoretic Analysis of Proteins 
Author: Shaklee, James B.; Tamaru, Clyde S.; Waples, Robin S.
Date: 1982-04
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Shaklee JB, Tamaru CS, Waples RS. 1982. Speciation and evolution of marine fishes studied by the electrophoretic analysis of proteins. Pac Sci 36(2):141-157.
Abstract: Electrophoretic analysis of proteins can be utilized to clarify the
taxonomic status of species as well as the evolutionary interrelationships of
populations, species, and higher taxa. Electrophoretic data for over 50 gene loci
in the bonefish Albula "vulpes" (Albulidae) demonstrate the existence of two
discrete species in Hawaii and throughout the Indo-West Pacific. Similar studies
of lizardfishes (Synodontidae) in the genera Synodus and Saurida reveal that
several unreported and/or undescribed species occur in the Hawaiian Islands.
Both of these studies emphasize the power of electrophoresis in distinguishing
morphologically cryptic species. The interrelationships of species and genera of
lizardfishes and of goatfishes (Mullidae) were investigated by using values of
genetic distance derived from protein similarities and differences. These comparisons
and the analysis of the two bonefish species, provide additional examples
of the basic independence of the rates of biochemical and morphological
Published electrophoretic investigations of fish speciation and evolution are
reviewed and several guidelines for future applications of the technique are
proposed. The importance of sympatric samples, the use of large numbers of
gene loci, and the conservative interpretation of genetic distance values are
emphasized. The utility of electrophoretic data for (a) identifying species (especially
juvenile, larval, and embryonic stages, or isolated animal products such as
fillets); (b) identifying F 1 interspecific hybrids; and (c) estimating absolute and
relative divergence times between taxa are discussed. Finally, the combined use
of electrophoretic data from fresh specimens together with multivariate morphometric
analyses of both the fresh specimens and preserved museum type
specimens is recommended as a robust approach for sorting out nomenclatural
ISSN: 0030-8870

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