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Title: Status of the silversword in Haleakala National Park: past and present 
Author: Loope, Lloyd L; Crivellone, Carmelle F
Date: 1986-05
Publisher: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany
Citation: Loope LL, Crivellone CF. 1986. Status of the silversword in Haleakala National Park: past and present. Honolulu (HI): Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany. PCSU Technical Report, 58.
Abstract: The Haleakala silversword, Arhyroxiphium sandwicense DC. ssp. macrocephalum (Gray) Meyrat, declined markedly in the late 1800's and early 1900's due to browsing by goats and cattle and to vandalism by humans. During the 1930's, after protection was provided by the national park, much concern arose over the high level of seed predation by native insects. Nevertheless, following protection, silversword numbers have increased and now total about 50,000 individuals. Although total crater-wide numbers remained stable between censuses in 1971 and 1982, large fluctuations have occurred on individual cinder cones. Plots for long-term study of silversword population dynamics have been established, with data taken annually. Preliminary results after three years suggest that many seedlings establish in some years, few or none in others; that substantial natural mortality occurs in some years; and that wide population fluctuations from year to year are occurring. The greatest threats to the Haleakala silversword today are thought to be the Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) and the western yellow-jacket (Vespula pensylvanica), aggressive alien
predators (of insects) which could disrupt ecosystem processes, especially pollination. Park managers now recognize the need for preservation of the entire complex of organisms belonging to the silversword ecosystem.
Series/Report No.: Technical Report
58
Description: Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.
Sponsorship: National Park Service
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/4009
LC Subject Headings: Argyroxiphium sandwicense.
Haleakala National Park (Hawaii)
Haleakala silversword -- Hawaii -- Maui.
Silverswords (Plants) -- Hawaii -- Maui.

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