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Item Description Mishra, Vinod K. en_US 2008-11-19T19:15:02Z 2008-11-19T19:15:02Z 2004 en_US
dc.description For more about the East-West Center, see <a href=""></a> en_US
dc.description.abstract Household use of unprocessed solid fuels (wood, dung, crop residues/grasses, and coal) for cooking and heating exposes large proportions of people in developing countries to high levels of toxic air pollutants indoors. Indoor smoke contains some of the same pollutants found in tobacco smoke and in ambient air, which have been linked with serious health consequences. There is growing evidence that exposure to indoor smoke can cause serious respiratory and other adverse health effects, but the quantity and quality of scientific literature vary considerably by type of health outcome. There is compelling evidence linking indoor smoke to acute respiratory infections in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic bronchitis in women. But, the evidence linking indoor smoke to asthma, tuberculosis, lung cancer, and adverse pregnancy outcomes is limited and sometimes conflicting; and evidence linking indoor smoke to cataract and blindness, otitis media, lung fibrosis, and cardiovascular disease is weak or nonexistent. Many of the studies use indirect measures of smoke exposure and reported measures of health outcomes, do not adequately account for confounding and interactions, and few address gender aspects of smoke exposure and its health effects. Differences in gender roles result in differential exposures to indoor smoke among males and females; and gender differences in nutritional status, treatment, and care result in differential effects of these exposures. Moreover, there are biological and genetic differences between males and females that mediate the effects of smoke exposure on health. There is need to improve both the quality and quantity of research in this area, using better study designs, direct measures of smoke exposure, and clinical measures of health outcomes. To reduce exposures to indoor smoke, there is need to promote widespread use of cleaner fuels, provide improved cookstoves, and inform people about potential health risks, especially to women and young children. en_US
dc.format.extent 40 pages en_US
dc.language.iso en-US en_US
dc.publisher Honolulu: East-West Center en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries East-West Center working papers. Population and health series ; no. 117 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Indoor air pollution en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Biomass - Combustion - Health aspects - Developing countries en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Environmentally induced diseases - Sex differences en_US
dc.title What do we know about health effects of smoke from solid fuel combustion? en_US
dc.type Papers en_US
dc.type.dcmi Text en_US

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