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|Title:||History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: forest birds: Vestiaria coccinea, Drepanis funerea, Drepanis pacifica|
|Authors:||Banko, Winston E.|
|LC Subject Headings:||Bird populations -- Hawaii.|
Endemic birds -- Hawaii -- History.
Extinct birds -- Hawaii.
Forest birds -- Hawaii.
|Publisher:||Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany|
|Citation:||Banko WE. 1981. History of endemic Hawaiian birds: part I: population histories, species accounts: forest birds: Vestiaria coccinea, Drepanis funerea, Drepanis pacifica. Honolulu (HI): Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany. CPSU/UH Avian History Report, 11b.|
|Series/Report no.:||Avian History Report|
|Abstract:||Vestiaria coccinea is a small, brilliant-scarlet forest bird with black wings and tail and a long curved orange bill. It ranges over all six forested Islands. Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered some 838 observational notes, collection records, reports and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1778 to 1978. All records are serially numbered, arranged in geographical and chronological order, referenced as to source and systematically analyzed. It is concluded that, since the late 1800's ´I´iwi have depopulated severely, if not completely, from low to mid-elevations below about 3000 ft. and significantly, if only moderately, above that elevation. Extinct on Lāna'i and rare on O´ahu and Moloka'i, 'I´iwi can presently be termed abundant only in a few selected localities above about 4000 ft. and then perhaps only seasonally on Kaua´i, Maui and Hawai'i. Drepanis funerea, or ´Ō´ōnukuumu, is a medium sized black forest bird with long curved bill. Endemic to the island of Moloka'i it formerly ranged upper elevation forests in the central and eastern sectors of the island. Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered only 39 reports, collection records and related statements on its population status and/or geographical distribution from 1893 to 1978. Ten specimens are known. Only scattered unsubstantiated rumors of its existence after 1907, when the last specimens were collected, are known. The ´Ō´ōnukuumu is apparently extinct. Drepanis pacifica, or Mamo, is a medium-sized black and yellow forest bird with long curved bill. Endemic to the island of Hawai'i it once ranged in Kohala, Kona, Ka'ū, and Mauna Kea Districts. Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered only 32 reports (many negative), collection records, and related statements on its relative abundance and/or geographical distribution from 1779 to 1978. Eleven specimens are known. Only scattered unsubstantiated reports exist after 1898 when the last group was seen above Hilo. Intensive island-wide surveys in the late 1970's failed to find this species. The Mamo is presumably extinct.|
|Description:||Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.|
|Sponsor:||Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; National Park Service Contract No. CX 8000 2 0012|
|Appears in Collections:||The Avian History Reports|
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