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Title: History of endemic Hawaiian birds: Part I: population histories, species accounts: forest birds: 'Amakihi, Creeper, 'Akepa & Po'o Uli 
Author: Banko, Winston E
Date: 1984-07
Publisher: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany
Citation: Banko WE. 1984. History of endemic Hawaiian birds: part I: population histories, species accounts: forest birds: 'Amakihi, Creeper, 'Akepa & Po'o Uli. Honolulu (HI): Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany. CPSU/UH Avian History Report, 8b & 8c.
Abstract: Loxops parvus [‘Anianiau] is a small, greenish-yellow forest bird with a slender, short, nearly straight bill. Endemic to island of Kaua'i, it was first described in 1888. Observers from 1961 to 1978 described it as "common to abundant" in areas mostly over 3000 feet elevation. It is concluded that sub-populations of L. parvus utilizing native forests below 1500 feet elevation have, in the past 80 years, become extinct while those remaining above that elevation apparently declined progressively less upward. Substantial numbers of this species continue to exist in higher elevation forests.

Endemic to the island of Hawai’i, Loxops sagittirostris [Greater ‘Amakihi] is a small, greenish forest bird, more robust than its congeners, with a long, blackish, nearly straight, oriole-like bill. It is presumed extinct.

Loxops maculatus [‘Alauwahio or Hawaiian Creeper] is a small, greenish or red forest bird with a straight, short to medium length bill. Six subspecies are recognized, one from each of the forested islands. Actually or practically extinct on O’ahu, Moloka’i, and Lana’i; on Kaua’i, Maui, and Hawai’i, they have disappeared below ca. 3500 feet and are in various stages of long-term depopulation above that elevation.

Loxops coccineus is a small, orangish or greenish forest bird with a short stout bill and distinctly notched tail. Four subspecies have been recognized since 1893 on Kaua’i, O’ahu, Maui, and Hawai’i. The races on O’ahu and Maui are actually or practically extinct, those on Kaua’i and Hawai’i cannot predictably be found below ca. 3500 feet, and the remaining subpopulations are in various stages of long-term depopulation above that elevation.

The Po’o Uli [Melamprosops phaeosoma] has the most recent and shortest history of any Hawaiian bird. Casey and Jacobi (1974) described and gave this new genus and species its Latin and Hawaiian names.

Exhaustive search of literature and field journals uncovered observational notes, collection records, reports, and related statements on relative abundance and geographical distribution from 1888 to 1978. All information is referenced, arranged in geographical and chronological order, and systematically reviewed. Subjects of data completeness, bias, erroneous and doubtful records are addressed.
Series/Report No.: Avian History Report
8b & c
Description: Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.
Sponsorship: Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; National Park Service Contract No. CX 8000 8 0012
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/356
Keywords: Loxops parvus, Anianiau, Lesser Amakihi, Loxops sagittirostris, Greater Amakihi, Loxops maculatus, Alauwahio, Hawaiian creeper, Loxops coccineus, Melamprosops phaeosoma
LC Subject Headings: Endemic birds -- Hawaii -- History.
Bird populations -- Hawaii.
Forest birds -- Hawaii.
Endangered species -- Hawaii.
Rare birds -- Hawaii.
Extinct birds -- Hawaii.
Akepa.
Loxops.
Po’ouli.

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This item appears in the following Collection(s)

  • The Avian History Reports [20]
    This collection presents the Avian History Reports (AHR), A Historical Synthesis of Recent Endemic Hawaiian Birds (1979-1990).

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