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Title: A Review of Ecological Factors Affecting the Annual Cycle 10 Island Populations of Seals 
Author: Ling, John K.
Date: 1969-10
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Ling JK. 1969. A review of ecological factors affecting the annual cycle 10 island populations of seals. Pac Sci 23(4): 399-413.
Abstract: Colonization of island habitats by pinnipeds for all or part of their
life cycle may expose the populations to various pressures. While the advantages of
an island rookery must override the disadvantages for such a situation to be selected,
its most efficient utilization by one or more species can be achieved only by coordination
of the annual cycles within and between species. Certain age categories or
species must make way for others at critical phases of the annual cycle if habitat
preferences are the same. However, more than one age group or species can coexist
when habitat requirements do not overlap. Interspecific strife is reduced to a minimum
by either spatial, temporal, or behavioral separation, but deleterious interspecific
contact may occur. Intraspecific strife between different age classes is prevented
by variable annual cycles with respect to age, but within any narrow age
category such interaction as occurs may affect the number of females being fertilized
and thereby act as a regulator of population size.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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