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Title: Is Organic Papaya Production in Hawaii Threatened by Cross-Pollination with Genetically Engineered Varieties? 
Author: Manshardt, Richard
Date: 2002-10
Publisher: University of Hawaii
Citation: Manshardt R. 2002. Is organic papaya production in Hawaii threatened by cross-pollination with genetically engineered varieties? Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii. 2 p. (Biotechnology; BIO-1).
Abstract: The organic certification regulations of the USDA currently define “organic” foods to exclude “genetically engineered” crop varieties. In Hawaii, the genetically engineered papaya varieties ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ were released in 1998 to provide protection from a damaging disease, papaya ringspot virus, which threatened to destroy the papaya
industry. The rapid adoption of these varieties on about half of the total production acreage in Hawaii has caused concern among growers of organic papayas, who fear that uncontrolled pollination of their plants by genetically engineered papayas in the vicinity will make their fruits unmarketable as organic produce. This publication provides pertinent information for growers who want to continue to produce organic papayas in regions where genetically engineered trees are common.
Series/Report No.: Biotechnology
Pages/Duration: 2 pages
Keywords: Carica papaya, cross pollination, organic certification, papayas, transgenic plants, Hawaii, fruit crops

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