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Title: Dispersal and Vicariance in Hawaiian Platynine Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera) 
Author: Liebherr, James K
Date: 1997-10
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Citation: Liebherr JK. 1997. Dispersal and vicariance in Hawaiian platynine carabid beetles (Coleoptera). Pac Sci 51(4): 424-439.
Abstract: The monophyletic, native Hawaiian Platynini have diversified on the
Hawaiian Island chain through progressive colonization, mixed with vicariance on
the various islands. Single-island endemism stands at 97% of the species, with the
few widespread species exhibiting distributions largely congruent with the fundamental
area cladogram found using cladistic biogeographic methods. The cost of
accepting an ad hoc dispersal hypothesis for individual taxa that conflicts with the
fundamental area cladogram is weighed against the savings in items of error when
taxa are excluded from the biogeographic analysis. Based on this objective assessment,
only one back-dispersal from Maui Nui to O'ahu is supported. Vicariance of
Maui Nui, leading to the present-day islands of Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Maui, has
resulted in seven resolvable species triplets composed of single-island endemics
occupying these areas. These seven triplets represent five biogeographic patterns,
necessitating explanation by numerous ad hoc hypotheses of extinction to support
a single hypothesis of area relationships. In six of the seven triplets, the cladistically
basal species exhibits a higher minimum elevational limit of occupied habitat than
either of the more apical sister species. This result is consistent with isolation of
more persistent, peripheral populations at higher elevations, leading to speciation.
Comparison of higher-elevation endemics to lower-elevation widespread species
supports this interpretation. Such a finding affirms the importance of understanding
geographic distribution on a scale appropriate to the action of vicariant mechanisms.
ISSN: 0030-8870
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/3218

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