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Title: Harvesting Impacts and Invasion by an Alien Species Decrease Estimates of Black Coral Yield off Maui, Hawai'i 
Author: Grigg, Richard W.
Date: 2004-01
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Grigg RW. 2004. Harvesting impacts and invasion by an alien species decrease estimates of black coral yield off Maui, Hawai'i. Pac Sci 58(1): 1-6.
Abstract: For over 40 yr, the black coral fishery in Hawai'i has been managed
successfully. However, three new developments now threaten sustainability of
the resource. First, harvesting pressure on increasingly smaller colonies of both
species of commercial black coral (Antipathes dichotoma Pallas and Antipathes
grandis Verrill) has increased. Since 1976, the biomass of black coral in the
overall bed off Maui, Hawai'i, has decreased by about 25%. Second, at depths
between 80 and 110m off Maui an alien species, Carijoa riisei (Duchassaing &
Michelotti), has overgrown large areas of the substratum as well as many adult
colonies of both species of commercial black coral. This invasion may be contributing
to a decrease in the recruitment of both species of black coral at shallower
depths. Third, increasing sales of black coral jewelry in recent years is also
placing more demand on the resource. Taken together, these trends suggest a
need for more stringent regulations, including a larger size (height) limit, a reduction
in the maximum sustained yield, and possible reassessment of the economics
of the fishery. Adoption of these or other measures would help to extend
and ensure continued sustainability of the black coral fishery in Hawai'i and
long-term conservation of the resource.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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