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Title: Reproductive Biology and Egg Abundance of the Yellowtail Scad or 'Omaka, Atule mate (Carangidae), in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i 
Author: Clarke, Thomas A.
Date: 1996-01
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Citation: Clarke TA. 1996. Reproductive biology and egg abundance of the yellowtail scad or 'omaka, Atule mate (Carangidae), in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i .Pac Sci 50(1): 93-107.
Abstract: Yellowtail scad or 'omaka, Atule mate (Cuvier & Valenciennes),
spawn mostly between March and September or October, but there is considerable
interannual variation in length of the season and egg density in Kane'ohe
Bay. Spawning occurs principally in open areas of the bay, with highest egg
abundances in the southern section. Almost all adult 'omaka taken in the bay
were reproductively active. More than two-thirds were males, which also routinely
reached sizes larger than the largest female. Sex ratio and proportion of
impending or recent spawners among females differed between day and night
samples; all females in day samples were actively spawning. Adults probably
move into the bay only for spawning and thus represent a biased sample of the
sex ratio and spawning frequency of the population associated with the bay at
any given time. Batch fecundity of females 188-232 mm standard length ranged
from 63,000 to 161,000; mean relative fecundity was 741 eggs per gram. The
standing stock of 'omaka associated with the bay during the peak spawning
season is probably at least 800-1600 kg or 5000-10,000 adults. Current annual
catch of 'omaka in the bay is a large fraction of the estimated standing stock,
but the latter could be much higher if spawning frequency were underestimated
or individual fish did not spawn throughout the entire season.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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