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A reproductive biology and natural history of the Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonica japonica) in urban Oahu

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Title: A reproductive biology and natural history of the Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonica japonica) in urban Oahu
Authors: Guest, Sandra J.
Keywords: Zosterops japonica japonica
Japanese White-eye
LC Subject Headings: Zosterops
Zosteropidae -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Introduced birds -- Hawaii -- Oahu
Issue Date: Sep 1973
Publisher: Island Ecosystems IRP, U.S. International Biological Program
Citation: Guest SJ. 1973. A reproductive biology and natural history of the Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonica japonica) in urban Oahu. Honolulu (HI): Island Ecosystems IRP, U.S. International Biological Program. International Biological Program Technical Report, 29.
Series/Report no.: International Biological Program Technical Report
Abstract: The White-eye (Zosterops japonica japonica) is a small passerine bird, first introduced to Hawaii from Japan in 1929. Since that time it has spread to all of the main islands, and is now is found from sea level to tree line and is probably the most abundant bird in Hawaii. This study considered the breeding biology of the population of White-eyes (about 100 birds) on the University of Hawaii Manoa campus (about 84 acres). It began in late 1971 and extended through the summer of 1973. The breeding season begins early in the year (the first nests in late February), continues through July, and ends with an annual molt in August. Initial pairing of juveniles probably occurs in winter flocks and the birds then remain together for at least more than one season, possibly for life. Each pair occupies a territory averaging 1.6 acres, the size being related to the vegetation present. Territory is defended by singing of the male, but both male and female may take active roles in chasing other singing White-eyes from the territory; however, trespassing of foraging White-eyes is generally permitted. Nest location is related to environmental factors (i.e., wind direction), but the plant species in which the nests are constructed is extremely variable. Both male and female construct the nest (a neatly woven cup usually suspended in the fork of a small branch). Average clutch size is 3.14 eggs (range 2 to 5 eggs), incubation period about 11 days, nestling period 9 to 10 days, and fledgling period about 20 days. Three successful broods are possible per pair in one season. Both parents incubate, carry food to the young, remove fecal sacs, and defend the young. The success rate, from egg to fledging, is 58.6% this is very high for a small, altricial, tropical bird. Weather and wind are the most important factors in the mortality of nests. The overall success of the species in Hawaii is discussed in terms of the positive and negative factors in the breeding biology. Diet and social behavior of adults are discussed also.
Description: Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.
Pages/Duration: 95 pages
Rights: CC0 1.0 Universal
Appears in Collections:International Biological Program Technical Reports (1970-1975)

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